Not Without Laughter Summary & Study Guide

This Study Guide consists of approximately 24 pages of chapter summaries, quotes, character analysis, themes, and more - everything you need to sharpen your knowledge of Not Without Laughter.
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Not Without Laughter Summary & Study Guide Description

Not Without Laughter Summary & Study Guide includes comprehensive information and analysis to help you understand the book. This study guide contains the following sections:

This detailed literature summary also contains Topics for Discussion and a Free Quiz on Not Without Laughter by Langston Hughes.

In Not without Laughter, Langston Hughes, the great early twentieth century American novelist, poet and playwright, presents the story of Sandy Rogers, a young black boy in the early 1900s growing up in the Midwest. Hughes aims to tell the story of black American life in the mid-west within two generations following slavery. He sets the story in Stanton, Kansas and focuses on the relations between blacks and whites, the tensions between different philosophies of living with oppression, the subtle and not-so-subtle racist social norms of Midwestern white society, poverty, religion and the possibility of a black person improving his or her position within a white society.

Sandy is a young boy when the story begins. He lives with his mother, Annjee, his aunt Harriet and his grandmother Aunt Hager. His father, Jimboy, travels the country working odd jobs and rarely writing home. His other aunt, Tempy, has married into black high-society that attempts to imitate whites to becomes acceptable to white society. In part due to a lack of education and in part due to direct discrimination against blacks, Sandy's family is very poor.

Aunt Hager is the family matriarch. She is a seriously religious Christian who tries to keep the family in church and well-behaved. She remembers being a slave as a little girl, but her general attitude towards white society is that oppressed is to be endured with love for the neighbor and prayer and forgiveness for the oppressor. She is also largely responsible for raising Sandy, particularly after Annjee leaves to be with Jimboy. Sandy's Aunt Harriett leaves home after a conflict with Aunt Hager and becomes a prostitute, while Tempy will hardly give her family the time of day. Aunt Hager is determined to raise Sandy right and keeps him employed and in school. She pushes Sandy to dream big for himself despite the odds against him and wants him to become a "great man".

When Aunt Hager dies, Annjee cannot afford to move Sandy to Detroit, where she and Jimboy live at the time, so Sandy goes to live with his Aunt Tempy. Tempy is embarrassed by her lower-class black past and has removed all of her "dialect" and goes to the Episcopal Church with her husband. She discourages Sandy from getting in trouble and keeps him in high school. The large number of books in her house gives Sandy the opportunity to read, and he quickly acquires a habit of constantly reading. The books he reads expand his mind and lead him to ask big questions about religion, morality and race relations.

Eventually Annjee saves up enough money to send for Sandy; Jimboy has gone to Europe in World War I and Annjee has found Sandy a job as a bell-boy. Sandy saves up money to continue his education, but Annjee wants him to keep his job as a bell-boy and make a living. About that time, Harriett has made her way out of darker places and has utilized her natural beauty and singing talent to become a regional blues singing star. When Sandy and Annjee go to see her in Chicago, Harriett berates Annjee for discouraging Sandy's education and reminds her of Aunt Hager's dreams for him. When Annjee relents, Harriett commits to funding Sandy's education.

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This section contains 545 words
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