Ficciones - Study Guide Part Two, Artifices, Three Versions of Judas Summary & Analysis

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Nils Runeberg has three theories on Judas. Runeberg, a religious man, asserts that Judas was misunderstood and did not betray Jesus Christ. Runeberg claims it was not necessary for Judas to point Jesus out to the Romans, as everyone knew who he was. Runeberg contends that it was necessary for their to be a sacrifice and that Judas chose to be that sacrifice. In this way, Judas is a martyr just like Jesus. When Runeberg published these ideas, however, he was rebuked by most Biblical scholars. Runeberg revised his theory. Runeberg suggests instead that while other men were renouncing the flesh, Judas renounced the spirit by renouncing honor, good, peace, and other pleasures. Finally Runeberg suggests that not only was Judas a mortal who felt the need to sacrifice himself for the good of all...

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