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A History of Western Philosophy - Book 2: Chapter 15, The Eclipse of the Papacy Summary & Analysis

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Book 2: Chapter 15, The Eclipse of the Papacy Summary and Analysis

In the thirteenth century philosophical, theological, political, and social spheres merged through Greek philosophies. Alexander's conquests achieved the incorporation of oriental beliefs. Perceptions of god became part of theology, while priesthood with its powers was able to exert political influence. The Persian idea of dualism, where two forces struggle for dominance, involved Ahura Mazda fighting evil while led by Ahriman. Black magic was to be part of the world of spirits that worked with the help of Ahriman, who developed Satan. With the decline of the papacy political and cultural changes occurred.

The Neoplatonic philosophy synthesized barbarian practices with certain Hellenic elements. The pagan philosophy ended with Plotinus and Porphyry.

Popular religion needed more than the thought of these men, whose philosophy proved difficult and too intellectual. Eastern influences...

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This section contains 539 words
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