Tolman, Edward C. (1886-1959) - Research Article from Learning & Memory

This encyclopedia article consists of approximately 7 pages of information about Tolman, Edward C. (1886-1959).
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The American psychologist Edward Chace Tolman was a forerunner of modern cognitive psychology; he showed that animals in learning mazes acquire organized spatial and temporal information about the maze and about the consequences of various alternative behaviors. In developing this approach, he was combating the dominant views of his time, which emphasized the acquisition of conditioned reflexes rather than knowledge about environmental events. Although several short biographies or reviews of Tolman's contributions are available (Crutchfield, 1961; Crutchfield et al., 1960; Hilgard, 1980; Innes, 1999, 2000; McFarland, 1993; Ritchie, 1964; Tolman, 1952), it is especially appropriate that one be included in an encyclopedia of learning and memory because workers in this field today are using ideas that were initiated and often developed by Tolman, although they do not necessarily recognize the source. Tolman's concepts and findings have helped to shape modern understanding of learning, memory, and cognition.

Edward C. Tolman (Psychology Archives, University of Akron) Edward C. Tolman (Psychology...

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This section contains 1,823 words
(approx. 7 pages at 300 words per page)
Buy the Tolman, Edward C. (1886-1959) Encyclopedia Article
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Tolman, Edward C. (1886-1959) from Macmillan. Copyright © 2001-2006 by Macmillan Reference USA, an imprint of the Gale Group. All rights reserved.
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