Spinoza, Benedict (Baruch) De (1632-1677) - Research Article from Encyclopedia of Philosophy

This encyclopedia article consists of approximately 69┬ápages of information about Spinoza, Benedict (Baruch) De (1632–1677).
This section contains 20,691 words
(approx. 69 pages at 300 words per page)
Buy the Spinoza, Benedict (Baruch) De (1632-1677) Encyclopedia Article

In the Port of Amsterdam (1632–1656)

Spinoza was born into the Portuguese Jewish community in Amsterdam in the same year Galileo published his Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems. His father, Michael, was an immigrant who had fled Portugal, with other members of his family, to escape the persecution of the Inquisition. At that time the Dutch Republic was one of the few places in Europe where Jews could worship freely. In Amsterdam Michael became a fairly prosperous merchant in the import-export business and a prominent member of the Portuguese synagogue.

But Baruch, as Benedict was first called, encountered his own problems with religious intolerance. In 1656, when he was twenty-three, the synagogue expelled him for what the sentence of excommunication described as "abominable heresies" and "monstrous deeds." Although Spinoza had received an orthodox religious education in his congregation's school, he rebelled early on against...

(read more)

This section contains 20,691 words
(approx. 69 pages at 300 words per page)
Buy the Spinoza, Benedict (Baruch) De (1632-1677) Encyclopedia Article
Copyrights
Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Spinoza, Benedict (Baruch) De (1632-1677) from Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Copyright © 2001-2006 by Macmillan Reference USA, an imprint of the Gale Group. All rights reserved.
Follow Us on Facebook