Science - Research Article from Encyclopedia of Sociology

Creative Teaching Press
This encyclopedia article consists of approximately 18 pages of information about Science.
This section contains 5,144 words
(approx. 18 pages at 300 words per page)
Buy the Science Encyclopedia Article

Social Stratification in Science

Competition remains intense among organizations that engage in basic research in the United States, particularly universities. Organizational prestige is central; as is usually true when it is difficult to measure organizational outputs directly, social comparisons become more important. Periodic surveys of faculty members have been used to rate the prestige of research departments. While outputs are difficult to measure, departments with high prestige are more successful in obtaining research resources and have higher rates of research productivity.

Competition is also intense among individual scientists, who compete for recognition from their peers for being the first to make valued discoveries (Merton 1973, chaps. 14 and 15; Hagstrom 1965, 1974). Competition may lead to secretive behavior and premature publication; it also may encourage scientists to move into new areas where there is less competition. A common consequence of competition is simultaneous or multiply independent discovery (see Zuckerman 1988 and the references cited there...

(read more)

This section contains 5,144 words
(approx. 18 pages at 300 words per page)
Buy the Science Encyclopedia Article
Copyrights
Encyclopedia of Sociology
Science from Encyclopedia of Sociology. Copyright © 2001-2006 by Macmillan Reference USA, an imprint of the Gale Group. All rights reserved.