Psychology - Research Article from Encyclopedia of Science, Technology, and Ethics

This encyclopedia article consists of approximately 16 pages of information about Psychology.
This section contains 2,026 words
(approx. 7 pages at 300 words per page)
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Background

Efforts to limit psychological research to observable phenomena or behavior along began with reactions against the introspective psychological research program of Wilhelm Wundt (1832–1920). In the form of behaviorism, these efforts dominated psychological theory and practice between the two world wars. As conceived by such founders as Ivan Pavlov (1849–1936), John B. Watson (1878–1958), and B. F. Skinner (1904–1990), behaviorism aspired to be wholly objective. Watson insisted upon leaving consciousness and other metaphysical concerns aside for an experimental precision that could not be attained using "internal perception" or any other introspective methods. He articulated his fundamental complaint about previous psychological thought when he wrote, "Behaviorism claims that consciousness is neither a definite nor a usable concept. The behaviorist, who has been trained always as an experimentalist, hold, further, that belief in the existence of consciousness goes back to the ancient days of superstition and magic" (Watson 1924, p...

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This section contains 2,026 words
(approx. 7 pages at 300 words per page)
Buy the Psychology Encyclopedia Article
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Encyclopedia of Science, Technology, and Ethics
Psychology from Encyclopedia of Science, Technology, and Ethics. Copyright © 2001-2006 by Macmillan Reference USA, an imprint of the Gale Group. All rights reserved.
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