Materialism - Research Article from Encyclopedia of Science, Technology, and Ethics

This encyclopedia article consists of approximately 5 pages of information about Materialism.
This section contains 1,496 words
(approx. 5 pages at 300 words per page)
Buy the Materialism Encyclopedia Article

Metaphysical Materialism

As a form of metaphysical monism, materialism attempts to reduce all phenomena to a single basic substance: matter. Thus, the opposites of metaphysical materialism are doctrines such as spiritualism, which holds that spirit is the ultimate reality; idealism, which sees the phenomenal world and matter as creations of the mind; and immaterialism, which rejects the reality of matter itself.

The idea of materialism was present when ancient Greek philosophy originated with Ionian natural philosophers who began to explain phenomena by referring to natural causes instead of religious myths in the sixth century B.C.E. The first systematically materialistic philosophers were the atomists Democritus and Leucippus of Abdera in the fifth century B.C.E. Among the major schools of philosophy in antiquity, Epicureanism professed materialism. In the modern period important materialists have included Pierre Gassendi (1592–1655), Thomas Hobbes (1588–1672), Heinrich Dietrich d'Holbach (1723–1789), Karl Marx (1818&#x...

(read more)

This section contains 1,496 words
(approx. 5 pages at 300 words per page)
Buy the Materialism Encyclopedia Article
Copyrights
Encyclopedia of Science, Technology, and Ethics
Materialism from Encyclopedia of Science, Technology, and Ethics. Copyright © 2001-2006 by Macmillan Reference USA, an imprint of the Gale Group. All rights reserved.
Follow Us on Facebook