Judaism - Research Article from Encyclopedia of Religion

This encyclopedia article consists of approximately 177 pages of information about Judaism.
This section contains 3,669 words
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Settlement and Early Institutions

A pattern of early royal support followed by royal opposition and instability characterized Jewish political life first in western Europe and then later in the East. The earliest royal policy toward the Jews in northern Europe dates from Charlemagne and, especially, from his son, Louis the Pious, who issued three private charters (privilegia) to individual Jewish merchants in about 825. These texts indicate that Jews were among the international merchants doing business in the Carolingian empire and were granted protection of their lives, exemption from tolls, and guarantees of religious freedom. This Carolingian policy toward Jewish merchants was also pursued by subsequent rulers of the German empire, and it encouraged the Jewish immigration that became a factor in the demographic and urban expansion of early medieval Europe.

The first communities developed gradually in the Rhineland towns, where various family groups...

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This section contains 3,669 words
(approx. 13 pages at 300 words per page)
Buy the Judaism Encyclopedia Article
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Encyclopedia of Religion
Judaism from Encyclopedia of Religion. Copyright © 2001-2006 by Macmillan Reference USA, an imprint of the Gale Group. All rights reserved.
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