Humanism - Research Article from Encyclopedia of Science, Technology, and Ethics

This encyclopedia article consists of approximately 10 pages of information about Humanism.
This section contains 2,723 words
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The Word

The Roman grammarian Aulus Gellius, who flourished circa 160 C.E., noted (in Noctes Atticae [Attic nights] the dual usage of the Latin humanitas (humanity). One usage was comparable to the Greek concept of philanthropia and indicated an attitude of general benevolence or humanitarian sympathies, while the other was comparable to the Greek paideia and indicated the achievement of being humanized (humanissimi) through acquired learning in the liberal arts. Because this latter usage was seen as a capability that separated humans from animals—giving humans the power of independent judgment—it had been favored by the Roman orator and philosopher Cicero (106–43 B.C.E.) and the Roman scholar Varro (116–27 B.C.E.) as a civilizing force.

Such an autonomous, cultured view of life fell largely out of fashion during the Middle Ages, replaced by a notion that human beings were defined players within set...

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This section contains 2,723 words
(approx. 10 pages at 300 words per page)
Buy the Humanism Encyclopedia Article
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Encyclopedia of Science, Technology, and Ethics
Humanism from Encyclopedia of Science, Technology, and Ethics. Copyright © 2001-2006 by Macmillan Reference USA, an imprint of the Gale Group. All rights reserved.
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