Ancient Logic - Research Article from Encyclopedia of Philosophy

This encyclopedia article consists of approximately 230 pages of information about Ancient Logic.
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The Beginnings

Syntax and Semantics

Some of the Sophists classified types of sentences (logoi) according to their force. So Protagoras (485–415), who included wish, question, answer, and command (Diels-Kranz 80.A1, Diogenes Laertius 9.53–4), and Alcidamas (pupil of Gorgias, fl. fourth century BCE), who distinguished assertion (phasis), denial (apophasis), question, and appellation (Diogenes Laertius 9.54). Antisthenes (mid-5th–mid-4th cent.) defined a sentence as "that which indicates what a thing was or is" (Diogenes Laertius 6.3, Diels-Kranz 45) and stated that someone who says what is speaks truly (Diels-Kranz 49). Perhaps the earliest surviving passage on logic is found in the Dissoi Logoi or Double arguments (Diels-Kranz 90.4, c.400 BCE). It is evidence for a debate over truth and falsehood. Opposed were the views that: (1) truth is a—temporal—property of sentences, and that a sentence is true (when it is said), if and only if things are as the...

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This section contains 9,880 words
(approx. 33 pages at 300 words per page)
Buy the Ancient Logic Encyclopedia Article
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Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Ancient Logic from Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Copyright © 2001-2006 by Macmillan Reference USA, an imprint of the Gale Group. All rights reserved.
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