2 beliefs that had a crucial role in shaping Gandhi's life were civil rights and independence. After his return to India in 1915, he organised protests by peasants, farmers, and urban labourers concerning excessive land-tax and discrimination. After assuming leadership of the indian national congress in 1921, Gandhi led nationwide campaigns to ease poverty, expand women's rights, build religious and ethnic amity, end untouchability, and increase economic self-reliance. Above all, he aimed to achieve the independence of India from foreign domination. Gandhi famously led his followers in the Non cooperation movement that protested the British-imposed salt tax with the 400 km (240 mi) Dandi Dalt March in 1930. Later, in 1942, he launched the Quit India Civil disobedience movement demanding immediate independence for India. Gandhi spent a number of years in jail in both South Africa and India.
Ghandi started satyagraha, or mass disobedience as a revolt against tyranny. He was a large believer in independence. He was also very peaceful and swore to always tell the truth. His birthday (October 2) was made International Day of Non-Violence.