Herod is a name used by three individuals in The Jewish War but generally referred to Herod the Great, son of Antipater, who was the founding patriarch of the Herodian Family that is detailed in the simplified family tree on page 493. Other Herods were his son with Mariamme II, and his grandson Herod of Chalcis. Antipater's wife was from Arabia and they had five children together. Herod was an important person in The Jewish Wars because he was Antipater's second son and was put in charge of Galilee as a youth. His achievements caused resentment and jealousy from other family members. His inconsistent reign caused conflict and rebellion for sons, daughters, wives and grandchildren. Herod married five wives that were significant in the family tree. The wives were Doris, Mariamme I and II, Malthace and Cleopatra. Herod's brothers were Phasael, the governor of Jerusalem, Pheroras, Joseph, and a sister Salome. Herod's father Antipater was made commissioner of Judea and his brother Hyrcanus was appointed high priest by Caesar. Herod violated ancestral Jewish law by executing offenders without trial. Hyrcanus demanded Herod be tried. Caesar ordered Herod's acquittal and named him commander-in-chief of Coele, Syria and Samaria instead, which frightened Hyrcanus. Herod was named king by the Senate, recommended by Antony and approved by Caesar. Herod received lands and cities he developed and was made procurator of all Syria. Herod built the city of Herodium, and fortified Masada, Jerusalem, and other locations.
The Jewish War