One of the major themes in Okot p' Bitek's Song of Lawino is that of tradition versus modernization, the loss of culture at the expense of progress. We see this in the two characters Lawino and Ocol. Ocol has a very derogatory view of Africans and their culture believing that it holds back the people. Lawino is of another mind and tries to show Ocol all that is good in their culture. The two clash literally, physically, and philosophically to present this theme.