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Emily Brontë was born on July 30, 1818 in Yorkshire. The family moved to a parsonage near the moors in Haworth, Yorkshire, two years later. Emily was the fifth of six children born into this literary family. Two of her older sisters, Maria and Elizabeth, got sick while away at school and died in 1824. Emily's mother had died three years after giving birth to Emily. As an escape from these hardships, the remainder of the family--father Patrick, and siblings Charlotte, Anne, and Branwell, wrote their own stories and delved into the land of fantasy. They were all educated and encouraged to read and write by their father, who was born into a poor Irish family and worked his way up in the Anglican Church. Patrick Brontë's family in Ireland was illiterate; therefore, he prized learning and the power it had to change lives. Only a poor minister, he knew his daughters would likely have to work as teachers or governesses, and their education would be indispensable.
Emily was the most reserved and least social of the Brontë children. Intensely private, she was infuriated when Charlotte read her poetry notebook and suggested she publish it. She normally did not show her writings to anyone. She liked to tell stories, though, and she and her little sister Anne invented Gondal, an imaginary kingdom. Emily never tired of creating stories about the land of Gondal and its inhabitants.
Though she studied away from home several times, Emily hated being away from Haworth, and she disliked the loss of privacy and writing time. She preferred to be at home, and she helped around the house, caring for father, and doing the finances and housework. In 1824, she and her sister Anne tried to start a school in their home, but there was no interest.
Emily Brontë's first publication came in 1846, when her poems were published along with Anne's and Charlotte's. They chose androgynous pseudonyms: Currer, Ellis, and Acton Bell, corresponding to Charlotte, Emily, and Anne. There was no reaction, but they decided to try writing novels. In 1847, a publisher accepted books by two of the sisters. Charlotte's Jane Eyre was already published, and receiving rave reviews. The dishonest publisher suggested that Currer Bell wrote Wuthering Heights too, in the hopes of increasing sales.
Critics found Wuthering Heights to be intense and original. But they were also troubled by what they saw as moral ambiguity. They did not think the villains of the story were adequately punished. After the publication of Wuthering Heights in 1847, Emily wrote little. She wanted nothing do with publishing and fame, and was not even interested in making a trip to London to affirm that it was she and not Charlotte who wrote Wuthering Heights.
Brontë was influenced by other writers, but also forged her own path. She explored the dark areas of the soul with her unique vision. Critic Richard Benvenuto writes of her:
"Like Brontë's poetry, Wuthering Heights anticipates twentieth-century literature--in its complex point of view, its violence, its use of dramatic scene instead of authorial comment or summary, its moral impartiality. It transcends time as few other Victorian novels do, yet it has points of connection with them and with the literary traditions of the nineteenth century" (86).
The pseudonym from Wuthering Heights was not removed until after Emily's death in 1848. Branwell had died months before Emily, and Anne died the following year. The only child remaining, Charlotte, published a new version of Wuthering Heights in 1850, correcting the mistakes the first publisher had ignored.
Benvenuto, Richard. Emily Brontë. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1982.
Brontë, Emily. Wuthering Heights. New York: Bantam Books, 1986.
Davies, Stevie. Emily Brontë. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1988.
Peterson, Linda H., ed. Emily Brontë: Wuthering Heights. Boston: Bedford Books of St. Martin's Press, 1992.
It is 1801 and Thrushcross Grange has a new tenant, Mr. Lockwood. He visits his landlord, Mr. Heathcliff, who lives at Wuthering Heights, the neighboring property. Mr. Heathcliff is out, and his young relatives, Mrs. Heathcliff and Hareton Earnshaw, are very disagreeable. It starts to snow, but no one is willing to help Mr. Lockwood get home, or to let him stay. He is attacked by a dog while leaving, and in his bloody state, Mr. Heathcliff begrudgingly allows him to stay.
Mr. Lockwood passes his time reading from the journals of a young girl named Catherine. He starts to dream. In the dream he quarrels with a preacher, and the parishioners attack him. A tapping awakens him, and he breaks a window in his attempt to quiet it. He grabs the hand of a ghost child, who calls herself Catherine Linton. Terrified, his scream awakens Heathcliff, who calls for the ghost to reappear. Heathcliff escorts Mr. Lockwood home through the snow-covered moors, but he still catches a bad cold.
Sick for several weeks with this cold, Mr. Lockwood asks Nelly Dean, his serving woman, to tell him about the inhabitants of Wuthering Heights. She was once their housekeeper, and she has lots of stories to tell. Mrs. Heathcliff, who was married to Heathcliff's son, is the daughter of Mrs. Dean's late master, Edgar Linton. Hareton Earnshaw, the nephew of Mrs. Linton, is Mrs. Heathcliff's cousin. Mr. Heathcliff was married to Mr. Linton's sister, who bore Linton, Catherine's husband. Heathcliff was an orphan Mr. Earnshaw found wandering the streets of Liverpool. Hindley, the eldest child, was very jealous of him. When Mr. Earnshaw died two years later, Hindley made Heathcliff work in the fields. Catherine and Heathcliff remained close friends. One day, while spying on Thrushcross Grange, they saw two children, Isabella and Edgar, nearly tearing a puppy to pieces in a selfish rage. One of the Linton's dogs attacked Catherine when they tried to run. She stayed for several weeks to heal, and when she returned from the Lintons, she was well mannered and nicely dressed, which annoyed Heathcliff.
In 1778, Hindley's wife gave birth to Hareton, then died soon after. Hindley, crazed with grief, could not care for him. Despite their differences, Edgar and Catherine grew closer. Catherine agreed to marry Edgar, telling Nelly that Heathcliff was too inferior to marry. Heathcliff heard this, and disappeared without a word.
Catherine became sick, but when her health improved, she and Edgar married and moved to the Grange. The marriage was good until Heathcliff returned. Edgar's sister Isabella fell in love with Heathcliff, but he despised her. Heathcliff kissed Isabella to hurt Catherine, and they had a big fight. During the fight, Edgar came in, demanding Heathcliff leave his house. Disgusted by both of them, Catherine shut herself in her room for three days, becoming ill and mad.
Isabella ran off and married Heathcliff, but she hated her new life at Wuthering Heights. One night, Catherine gave birth to Catherine Linton, and died. Soon after Catherine's death, Isabella escaped to the Grange. She moved to London and had a child, named Linton, and died twelve years later. Hindley died six months after his sister.
Upon Isabella's death, Edgar tried to keep Linton, but Heathcliff sent for him. A few years later, when wandering near the Heights, Cathy met her cousin. But Cathy's father forbids the relationship. She starts a secret correspondence with Linton, and they think they are in love.
Mr. Earnshaw finally agreed the two cousins may visit if they do not go onto the Heights land. Linton coerced Nelly and Cathy to enter the house. Once inside, Heathcliff imprisoned them until Cathy agreed to marry Linton. With her father dying and escape impossible, Cathy relented. After her father died, Heathcliff moved his daughter-in-law to the Heights. Linton died soon after the wedding, and Catherine befriended Hareton, teaching him to read.
The following year, 1802, Mr. Lockwood returns to the Heights. He learns from Nelly that Heathcliff died unexpectedly after a strange and restless madness. He was buried next to Catherine, but several people believe they see he and Catherine wandering the moors. Cathy and Hareton are in love and plan to marry, then move into the Grange.
Mr. Lockwood: One of the narrators. He rents Thrushcross Grange from Mr. Heathcliff, and his housekeeper is Nelly Dean. After a disastrous visit to Wuthering Heights, in which he is visited by the ghost of Catherine Linton, Mr. Lockwood asks Nelly to tell him about Heathcliff and the Earnshaw family.
Mr. Heathcliff: The orphan boy Mr. Earnshaw found in Liverpool. He becomes Mr. Earnshaw's foster son, and the foster brother of Catherine and Hindley. He looks very different with his dark skin, hair, and eyes, and his speech is at first incoherent. He becomes best friends with Catherine, but Hindley hates him. Father favors Heathcliff, and becomes furious when he is treated poorly. They form a sort of team, though Heathcliff never shows much love or appreciation. He eventually becomes selfish and mean from all this attention, and his favored spot means he can get what he wants from his brother and sister. After Mr. Earnshaw's death, Hindley returns and makes Heathcliff a servant, refusing him the right to speak to Catherine. Life becomes miserable, and the little outsider blames Hindley; revenge becomes his only goal in life. Grown evil and cruel, he gets his chance when Hindley becomes mad after his wife's death, and Heathcliff is able to take Wuthering Heights from him. Catherine, his love, marries Edgar Linton and dies in childbirth. To revenge himself against the Lintons, Heathcliff marries Edgar's sister, treats her terribly, and raises their son only because he can help further his revenge. And when he forces Catherine's daughter to marry Linton, his revenge is nearly complete. Heathcliff is a man on the edge: spiteful, mad, and insecure. He went mad after Catherine's death, when he asked her to haunt him until he died. From her death until his own, he believes himself haunted by her ghost. Prior to his own death, he withdrew from everyone, wandering the moors. After his death, people claim he became a ghost himself, wandering the moors with Catherine.
Joseph: The self-righteous servant at Wuthering Heights. He feels that everyone is bent for hell except himself, and he is constantly pushing his morality. He is unkind and cold, and cares only for Hareton; he somehow feels he was meant for a greater destiny.
Hareton Earnshaw: The son of Hindley and Frances Earnshaw, and the cousin of Cathy and Linton. He is the rightful heir of Wuthering Heights, but his father's gambling debts allow Heathcliff to take over as the new owner. Hareton doesn't know what he lost, and is made to work in the fields, without education, manners, or affection. He is not dumb, but his gifts have gone uncultivated. He begins to teach himself to read, hoping to gain the approval of the young Catherine, but she constantly insults him, thinking him too vulgar to be her cousin. After the death of Linton, Catherine warms to Hareton. She helps him with his learning and his manners, and the two fall in love, planning to marry soon. Despite his poor treatment, Hareton loves Heathcliff like a father, and he is the only one who mourns him when he dies.
Catherine Linton Heathcliff: The daughter of Edgar Linton and Catherine Earnshaw, and the cousin to Hareton and Linton. She is a sweet, loving girl, and her father is the most important person in her life. She can be cruel; she makes fun of Hareton's ignorance and then his attempt to improve himself. Heathcliff locks her up until she agrees to marry Linton. Her beloved father dies soon after, and she becomes cold and uncaring under the influence of Heathcliff, Hareton, and Joseph. But when Linton dies and she is forced into their company, she forms an alliance with Hareton. She treats him nicer, and the two fall in love, and plan to marry.
Catherine Earnshaw Linton: The daughter of Mr. And Mrs. Earnshaw, sister to Hindley and Heathcliff. She can be wild and impulsive, and she likes to make trouble. Though mischievous, she is not a cruel person. She can love tenderly, but her temper can often override her loyalty. As a child, she befriends Heathcliff, and she loves him and feels he is a part of her. But she chooses to marry Edgar, which infuriates Heathcliff. Despite her marriage, she still loves him, though they are divided and he is still hurt by her marriage. After a tumultuous visit, Catherine refuses food, hoping to become ill. She goes mad and dies, after giving birth to a baby girl, Catherine. Though dead and buried near the moors, Catherine's ghost wanders, haunting Heathcliff and even appearing to Mr. Lockwood.
Hindley Earnshaw: The son of Mr. and Mrs. Earnshaw, brother to Catherine and Heathcliff. He hates Heathcliff, who is father's favorite. When he returns from college after his father's death, he and his new wife become the heads of the house. He turns Heathcliff into a servant, and treats his other sibling like she is an annoyance. His wife dies after Hareton is born, and Hindley cannot stand the grief. He is a selfish man, and he cannot understand why someone so important was taken from him. He ignores his new son, and starts drinking. He becomes more drunken, crazy, and violent as time wears on. He loses Wuthering Heights to Heathcliff, and dies soon after his sister.
Nelly Dean: The Earnshaw's maid. She tells Mr. Lockwood the story of the Earnshaws and the Lintons while he is sick with a cold. She knows the story well because she has been at the Heights or the Grange all her life. Her mother was a servant for the Earnshaws, and Nelly grew up with Catherine, Hindley, and Heathcliff. Therefore, she is less reserved and formal with her master and mistress, treating them more as family than bosses. She has lots of advice to offer, and she likes to meddle.
Edgar Linton: The son of Mr. and Mrs. Linton, brother to Isabella. He is a delicate boy, a contrast to Heathcliff. He and Catherine Earnshaw fall in love and marry. He indulges his tempestuous wife, and lavishes her with affection. But she does not love Edgar the way she loves Heathcliff, and she scorns her husband's nonviolent nature. After Catherine's death, Edgar is a caring and protective father to Cathy. He is afraid Heathcliff will get his revenge through Cathy, and he tries his best to keep his daughter away from the Heights.
Linton Heathcliff: The son of Heathcliff and Isabella Linton, and the cousin of young Catherine and Hareton. He is weak and sickly, and his good nature is soured during his time at Wuthering Heights. He becomes selfish and complaining, and he is so cowardly that he agrees to help his father imprison Cathy. He and his cousin marry, and he does not even treat her well. After the marriage, his father loses all interest in his passive son, and Linton dies.
Isabella Linton Heathcliff: The daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Linton, sister to Edgar Linton. She falls in love with Heathcliff despite his ill nature. Her brother disapproves, so she runs away with him. At first she is dazzled by Heathcliff, and turns a blind eye to his violent and cruel tendencies. Her own violent and cruel tendencies come out, and she finally escapes from Heathcliff. She moves away and secretly has their child, Linton. She dies twelve years later.
Zillah: The maid at Wuthering Heights.
Mr. Earnshaw: The father of Catherine and Hindley, foster father of Heathcliff. He loves his children, but wishes Catherine and Hindley were better behaved. Catherine is too wild, and Hindley is often mean to Heathcliff, his favorite. When he dies, the property falls to Hindley, who treats the former favorite as a servant.
Frances Earnshaw: The wife of Hindley Earnshaw, mother of Hareton Earnshaw. A silly woman, she at first pampers her new sister, then tires of her. She eventually shares in her husband's tyrannical rule of the house. She fears death, and soon after giving birth to Hareton, she dies, leaving her husband to become mad with grief, and her child an uncared for pauper.
Mrs. Earnshaw: The mother of Catherine and Hindley. She is not happy to see that her husband has brought home a strange orphan boy for them to raise.
Mr. and Mrs. Linton: The parents of Isabella and Edgar, and the owners of Thrushcross Grange. They like Catherine, but are disgusted with Heathcliff and his vulgar language. They visit Catherine when she is ill, then fall ill themselves and die.
Mr. Kenneth: The town doctor who attends to the families' many illnesses.
Thrushcross Grange: The Linton family home, four miles away, is very different from the Heights. It is more lavishly decorated, and the Linton family seems happy and loving. When Catherine marries Linton, her property, the Grange, is transferred to her husband. Then when he dies, it goes to Heathcliff, Linton’s father. A married woman’s property belonged to her husband and his family, even if the husband died. Therefore, Heathcliff became owner of the Heights, Catherine his dependent, and Mr. Lockwood was afforded the opportunity to rent the Grange.
Wuthering Heights: The family home of the Earnshaws since 1500. When Mr. Earnshaw dies, Hindley takes over and rules the house like a tyrant; when he goes mad, Heathcliff takes over and behaves just as badly. Heathcliff, desiring revenge against the Earnshaw’s, takes advantage of Hindley, who gambles away his family home. The Heights becomes the source of Heathcliff’s revenge, as he turns Hindley’s son, who would have been the master of the Heights, into an ignorant servant. Dark and dingy, the Heights is best suited for the hardened soul. After Mr. Earnshaw died, there was no place for a sensitive or delicate soul here; hence, Isabella and Linton have difficulty surviving at the Heights.
moors: A field of open infertile land. There are usually grasses but no trees, due to the strong winds that roll across the hills. They can also be wet wastelands full of peat, moss, and heath. They make up the area between and around Wuthering Heights and the Grange. Wuthering Heights received its name from the strong winds that blow across these barren hills. Catherine Earnshaw and Heathcliff loved to play in the moors, and it also becomes a spot of silent, sorrowful wandering for Heathcliff after Catherine dies. The moors can be dangerous even for those who are familiar and a bad storm can make them nearly uncrossable.
Seventy Times Seven, and the First of the Seventy-First: The title of a book Mr. Lockwood reads at the Heights. It is on Catherine’s bookshelf, and it was probably a forced gift from Joseph. Mr. Lockwood dreams that the preacher of this sermon, Jabes Branderham, is at the nearby chapel, and he and Joseph are going to hear him. He believes that he, Joseph, or the preacher are guilty of the 'First of the Seventy-First.' The preacher goes on and on, for four hundred and ninety sins. To reach so high a number, he defines acts that Mr. Lockwood never imagined as sins. And when Mr. Lockwood accuses the preacher of being guilty of the last sin, the preacher turns the congregation against him. They start to attack Mr. Lockwood with their pilgrim sticks while the preacher beats the pulpit.
Liverpool: A port city in northwest England. During a business trip here, Mr. Earnshaw finds a dark-skinned, inarticulate boy wandering the streets. He cannot find any relatives, so he brings it home to Wuthering Heights. They name him Heathcliff. No one, even the boy, knows his ancestry or country of origin. Being that he was found in a port city, he could have come off a boat from a foreign country, making his history even more uncertain.
Gimmerton: The nearest town to the isolated Heights and Grange.
Penistone Craggs: A rock formation that can be seen from the Grange. Cathy wants to see it, but her father warns that it is too dangerous. When Cathy sneaks away to find the Craggs, she passes Wuthering Heights and is forced to enter when Hareton’s dogs attack her own.
the Fairy cave: A cave out on the moors, under Penistone Craggs. In her delirium, Catherine Earnshaw imagines that her sickbed is inside the cave, and that Nelly is planning to hurt her. Years later, when Catherine’s daughter hears about the Fairy cave, she is intrigued.
pilgrim sticks: Sticks carried by pilgrims, who are religious travelers. In Mr. Lockwood’s dream, Joseph has one but he does not. And when Mr. Lockwood stands up to the preacher, the parishioners start to attack him with their holy sticks.
Quote 1: "was moved to rise and denounce Jabes Branderham as the sinner of the sin that no Christian need pardon." Chapter 3, pg. 20
Quote 2: "Terror made me cruel; and finding it useless to attempt shaking the creature off, I pulled its wrist on to the broken pane, and rubbed it to and fro till the blood ran down and soaked the bedclothes..." Chapter 3, pg. 22
Quote 3: "I cannot love thee; thou 'rt worse than thy brother. Go, say thy prayers, child, and ask God's pardon. I doubt thy mother and I must rue that we ever reared thee!" Chapter 5, pg. 38
Quote 4: "I'm trying to settle how I shall pay Hindley back. I don't care how long I wait, if I can only do it at last. I hope he will not die before I do!" Chapter 7, pg. 54
Quote 5: "do live more in earnest, more in themselves, and less in surface change, and frivolous external things." Chapter 8, pg. 56
Quote 6: "he had ceased to express his fondness for her in words, and recoiled with angry suspicion from her girlish caresses, as if conscious there could be no gratification in lavishing such marks of affection on him." Chapter 8, pg. 61
Quote 7: "Doubtless Catherine marked the difference between her friends, as one came in and the other went out. The contrast resembled what you see in exchanging a bleak, hilly, coal country for a beautiful fertile valley; and his voice and greeting were as opposite as his aspect." Chapter 8, pg. 63
Quote 8: "It would degrade me to marry Heathcliff now; so he shall never know how I love him: and that, not because he's handsome, Nelly, but because he's more myself than I am. Whatever our souls are made of, his and mine are the same; and Linton's is as different as a moonbeam from lightning, or frost from fire." Chapter 9, pg. 73
Quote 9: "If all else perished, and he remained, I should still continue to be; and if all else remained, and he were annihilated, the universe would turn to a mighty stranger: I should not seem a part of it...Nelly, I am Heathcliff! He's always, always in my mind: not as a pleasure, any more than I am always a pleasure to myself, but as my own being." Chapter 9, pg. 74
Quote 10: "I seek no revenge on you....That's not the plan. The tyrant grinds down his slaves and they don't turn against him; they crush those beneath them...Having levelled my palace, don't erect a hovel and complacently admire your own charity in giving me that for a home." Chapter 11, pg. 103
Quote 11: "Well, if I cannot keep Heathcliff for my friend--if Edgar will be mean and jealous, I'll try to break their hearts by breaking my own. That will be a prompt way of finishing all, when I am pushed to extremity!" Chapter 11, pg. 107
Quote 12: "It is not in him to be loved like me: how can she love in him what he has not?" Chapter 14, pg. 137
Quote 13: "That is how I'm loved! Well, never mind. That is not my Heathcliff. I shall love mine yet; and take him with me: he's in my soul." Chapter 15, pg. 146
Quote 14: "Kiss me again, but don't let me see your eyes! I forgive what you have done to me. I love my murderer--but yours! How can I?" Chapter 15, pg. 148
Quote 15: "And I pray one prayer--I repeat it till my tongue stiffens--Catherine Earnshaw, may you not rest as long as I am living! You said I killed you--haunt me, then!...Be with me always--take any form--drive me mad! only do not leave me in this abyss, where I cannot find you!" Chapter 16, pg. 153
Quote 16: "my son is prospective owner of your place, and I should not wish him to die till I was certain of being his successor. Besides he's mine, and I want the triumph of seeing my descendant fairly lord of their estates: my child hiring their children to till their father's land for wages. That is the sole consideration which can make me endure the whelp: I despise him for himself, and hate him for the memories he revives!" Chapter 20, pg. 191
Quote 17: But there's this difference: one is gold put to the use of paving-stones, and the other is tin polished to ape a service of silver." Chapter 21, pg. 201
Quote 18: "He wanted all to lie in an ecstasy of peace; I wanted all to sparkle and dance in a glorious jubilee. I said his heaven would be only half alive; and he said mine would be drunk: I said I should fall asleep in his; and he said he could not breathe in mine..." Chapter 24, pg. 225
Quote 19: "He'll never let his friends be at ease, and he'll never be at ease himself!" Chapter 24, pg. 233
Quote 20: "Catherine's face was just like the landscape--shadows and sunshine flitting over it in rapid succession; but the shadows rested longer, and the sunshine was more transient..." Chapter 27, pg. 243
Quote 21: "I'm glad, for I shall be master of the Grange after him--and Catherine always spoke of it as her house. It isn't hers! It's mine: papa says everything she has is mine. All her nice books are mine; she offered to give me them, and pretty birds, and her pony Minny, if I would get the key of her room, and let her out; but I told her she had nothing to give, they were all, all mine." Chapter 28, pg. 257
Quote 22: "You have left me so long to struggle against death, alone, that I feel and see only death! I feel like death!" Chapter 30, pg. 268-269
Quote 23: "I have lost the faculty of enjoying their destruction, and I am too idle to destroy for nothing." Chapter 33, pg. 295
Quote 24: "Last night, I was on the threshold of hell. To-day, I am within sight of my heaven. I have my eyes on it: hardly three feet to sever me!" Chapter 34, pg. 300
Madness 1: Heathcliff does not know that Mr. Lockwood is sleeping in Catherine's room. Therefore, when he hears the screaming, he thinks it is Catherine's ghost. He is sorely disappointed to see that it is Mr. Lockwood, and after he orders him to leave, Heathcliff opens the window and calls outside for his beloved, dead Catherine. He receives no answer.
Madness 2: Heathcliff secretly leaves Wuthering Heights when he overhears Catherine say that it would degrade her to marry him. Guilty for what she said, Catherine looks for him even in the pouring rain. When he cannot be found, she becomes detached. But when Hindley starts to yell at her, Catherine has a fit of madness. The doctor is called, and does what he can. She is so mad and delusional, the doctor is fearful that she will kill herself.
Madness 3: Heathcliff returns after Catherine's marriage. When he visits, he and Edgar Linton have a terrible fight, which upsets Catherine. She determines to become frenzied, which will hurt them both. Raging, she hit her head against the sofa and her lips became bloody. She was out of breath, and when Nelly told Edgar about his wife's decision to act madly, Catherine's rage hit its peak. Her muscles stood out irregularly, her eyes were wild, and Nelly feared she would turn violent.
Madness 4: Catherine refuses all food and drink for several days. She does not understand why she is not getting her way, and becomes paranoid that her former friends are now enemies. The knowledge that her husband has been in his library, seemingly unconcerned about her welfare, makes her hysterical. She feels alone in the world, and wishes to be out on the moors, or with her Heathcliff.
Madness 5: Catherine plucks the feathers from her pillow, and starts to confuse the past with the present. She recalls a time when Heathcliff shot a bird, leaving the babies to die.
Catherine talks about elf-bolts and cows, the black press, and her bed in the fairy cave. She talks as though she knows more than Nelly, as though she is better off. The black press turns out to be a mirror. Catherine, lost without her Heathcliff, cannot recognize her own reflection in the mirror. Afraid it is a ghost, she makes Nelly cover it.
Madness 6: Hindley, crazed with the loss of his wife and his land, tells Isabella about his plan to kill Heathcliff. Every night he tries to open Heathcliff's bedroom door, and when one night it is unlocked, he plans to shoot him. He believes some kind of devil urges him to settle the score this way.
Madness 7: Heathcliff tells Nelly how blinded Isabella was to him, and how every act of meanness and violence just made her come back for more. He did nothing illegal, so she would have no grounds for divorce. Nelly is horrified at this speech and thinks Heathcliff is crazy.
Heathcliff suggests to Nelly that Isabella isn't capable of taking care of herself because she is crazy. Before coming to the Heights, Isabella never exhibited any such behavior. It is only her association with Heathcliff that seems to have brought it out.
Madness 8: Heathcliff insists he has another visit with Catherine, despite the disastrous effects of his last one. She is dying, and her face is wild and pale. He sees that she is mad, and it hurts to see her so tortured. They embraced almost violently, and Heathcliff foams at the mouth like a wild animal.
Madness 9: Like her mother, Cathy's fits are frightening. She married Linton, but Heathcliff still has not released her. With her father near death, Cathy becomes crazy with the idea that she may not see him before he dies. Unlike her mother, whose fits were selfish and meant to hurt others, Cathy's arise from a fear of hurting her father. Her frenzy scares Linton so much that he agrees lets her out.
Madness 10: After nights of wandering the moors, and many days without food, Heathcliff is going mad. His face and eyes are altered; he seems excitable and agitated. There is also a strange happiness in his face. When he returns home the night before his death, Nelly hears him say Catherine's name as though she was present. She can also hear him mumbling in low tones, talking to someone who isn't there. He believes Catherine has been haunting him for years, and now that he is near death, he acts as though Catherine's spirit is closer than ever.
Nature 1: Wuthering Heights, the home of the Earnshaws, was built alongside the moors. Winds whip across these barren fields, making the growth of trees impossible. The estate received its name because of how bad weather attacks the house and its surroundings. The moors are the favorite place for Catherine Earnshaw and Heathcliff to play, and it later becomes the playground of Cathy Linton. Like the Heights, which must be strong to stand against the wind, the children who love the moors are strong and independent. Neither Edgar or Isabella Linton express much interest in this barren landscape, and Linton Heathcliff is too ill to traverse the moors.
Nature 2: At the time of Mr. Earnshaw's death, a strong wind wrapped and howled around Wuthering Heights. He was sitting inside with Catherine and the rest of the family, safe and warm inside the house. The wind roared down the chimney, and beat at the moors. A change was coming and the wind signaled it.
Nature 3: One day when Hindley is out, Heathcliff hopes to spend the day with Catherine. But she has already invited Edgar Linton over, and Heathcliff is very jealous. Catherine complains that Heathcliff is no longer a very interesting companion, and he leaves in a huff at the sound of Edgar's horse. Heathcliff leaves as Edgar enters:
"Doubtless Catherine marked the difference between her friends, as one came in and the other went out. The contrast resembled what you see in exchanging a bleak, hilly, coal country for a beautiful fertile valley; and his voice and greeting were as opposite as his aspect." Chapter 8, pg. 63
Nature 4: After the fight between Heathcliff and Edgar, Catherine determines to make herself mad. She refuses to eat for several days, and she becomes delusional. Having not left her room in days, she insists on opening the window and letting in the cold air. She thinks the only thing that will help her recover and feel like herself again is to be outdoors. The wind, a walk on the moors, will bring her back to herself.
Nature 5: Edgar comes into Catherine's bedroom and helps Nelly pull her away from the window. She is not happy to see her husband, and tells him that soon she will be dead, and among the hills. She wants to be buried not in the chapel, as the Lintons are, but under the stars. The Lintons are not outdoors people the way the Earnshaws are. They are more delicate, and reserved. Catherine wants to be buried in accord with the way she lived her life.
Catherine makes a distinction between her body and her soul. She tells Edgar that he may hold her body, but that her soul belongs outside, on the moors. She has a strong connection with the moors, and she feels she belongs there more than anywhere else.
Nature 6: It is early spring and the snow is almost gone. Edgar, looking at his ailing wife, remarks that if she could walk outside on the hills, she would likely get better. He cannot deny his wife's connection with nature, and how much its absence has affected her.
Nature 7: Catherine is no longer dangerously ill, but she is weakened and changed. Feeling like a caged animal, she tells Nelly how much she wishes to be outside, and to be always there--to be dead. She will then be apart and free, as she cannot be now.
Nature 8: When Nelly goes to tell Heathcliff that Catherine has died, she finds him leaning against a tree. His hair is wet with dew, and he has been there so long that passing animals neither notice nor fear him. He has let himself get as close, without dying, to the nature of which his Catherine is now a part.
Nature 9: The townspeople are surprised that Catherine is buried not in the chapel, the house of God, or under the stone monument of the Linton's, or with her own family. Instead she is buried in the graveyard, so close to its edge that the plants of the moors are spilling inside it.
Nature 10: After Catherine's death, a snow interrupts this early month of summer. The early flowers die under the drifts, birds go silent, and young plants die. Nature becomes completely silent in her absence, as though it is in mourning.
Nature 11: Cathy is depressed by her father's illness. They used to take long walks together, but now he is forced to stay indoors. Nelly offers herself as a substitute, and she and Cathy go for a walk. Nelly tries to cheer her up, pointing out one of the last flowers of summer. But Cathy will not pick it, as Nelly suggests. It looks sad, and she prefers to leave it alone. Nelly compares the lonely flower to little Cathy, who is pale and solemn.
Nature 12: Edgar Linton is dying, and Cathy hates to be away from her father's bedside. Nelly thinks a visit to her cousin might cheer her, and they head over in the afternoon. Everything about the hills and sun was comforting, but:
"Catherine's face was just like the landscape--shadows and sunshine flitting over it in rapid
succession; but the shadows rested longer, and the sunshine was more transient" Chapter 27, pg. 243. Her grief was so strong that even a beautiful day could not cheer her.
Nature 13: Heathcliff tells Nelly how after Catherine's death, he almost dug up her grave. It was killing him to know that only a few feet of earth separated them, and he thought that if she was cold, he could just imagine it was the wind.
Nature 14: Joseph explodes when he sees that his trees have been dug up. He tells Heathcliff that he planned to die here, but with such changes, he cannot stand to be here. To have Cathy tear up his garden and to have Hareton help her, breaks his heart.
Supernatural 1: Waking from a violent dream, Mr. Lockwood, who is sleeping in Catherine's bed, sees a ghost. It is a young girl who calls herself Catherine Linton. Mr. Lockwood will not let her in, even though she complains she has been wandering twenty years. It was about twenty years ago that Catherine Linton died, and Heathcliff begged her to haunt him until he died.
Supernatural 2: Nelly, who claims not to believe in ghosts, does have some superstitions. She does not like to hear other people's dreams, and she refuses to hear Catherine's. Catherine suggests that it was a bad dream, maybe a prophecy. Catherine tells Nelly that she dreamed she was in heaven, and unhappy there. But Nelly stops her then, refusing to hear more. Catherine and Heathcliff are tightly connected, and Heathcliff has said that his heaven is not the religious kind, but an eternity with Catherine. Perhaps she is of the same opinion, and her dream foretold their sad end.
Supernatural 3: The night of Heathcliff's departure there is a terrible storm. Full of sorrow and guilt, Catherine refused to come inside from the drenching rain. Either the wailing winds or the thunderstorm broke a nearby tree in half, the sound terrifying Nelly and Joseph. Joseph thought the storm was a sign of the end, and Nelly wondered for once if Joseph was right.
Supernatural 4: One day when passing the road to Wuthering Heights, Nelly had a vision. Thinking about Hindley, she saw his young face, with his eyes staring into hers. She suddenly felt a need to go to the Heights, and make sure he was all right. Upon reaching the gates, she saw a boy who matched her phantom. It was Hareton, Hindley's son, whom she had cared for before moving to the Grange.
Supernatural 5: After the fight between Heathcliff and Edgar, Catherine became mad. After her illness receded, she became listless, quiet, and pale. Her hair she wore loose down her back, and the calmness left by her illness made her beautiful in a strange, ghostly way.
Supernatural 6: Heathcliff has guessed that Catherine is dead even before Nelly tells him. He is greatly troubled by the fact that she never regained consciousness enough to ask for him before she died. Feeling cheated and alone, he begged and prayed that she would not be at peace. Since he cannot rest without her, he wants her ghost to haunt him until he dies. Unlike Linton, who is sorrowful but accepting of his wife's death, Heathcliff selfishly hopes that Catherine will have no peace without him.
Supernatural 7: After Catherine's death, Isabella escapes to the Grange. She wants to leave Heathcliff, who has become mad since Catherine's death. He refuses all company, spending most of his time by the Grange. He is so interested in the dead that Isabella calls him a goblin. She is no longer sure if she married a man, a devil, or a ghost.
Supernatural 8: Heathcliff, with no respect for the dead, had the gravedigger open Catherine's coffin while he was preparing Edgar's. The coffin was opened, and Catherine's face looked the same as the day she died, nearly twenty years ago.
Desperate to be with her in death, he knocked out one side of her coffin, with the instructions that one side of his be knocked out too, so that they might lie together for eternity. He tells Nelly that without this measure, he would likely haunt them all.
Heathcliff also confessed to Nelly that right after Catherine's death he almost dug her up. He wanted to hold her again, and he had begun to dig when he heard a sigh nearby, and felt a warm breath at his ear. He was certain it was Cathy, not in the grave, but on earth! After that time he was constantly looking for her, and always expected to see her wherever he went. But though he often thought he felt her, she did not show herself again.
Supernatural 9: Heathcliff has been talking to Nelly about his approaching death. He has been acting strangely, refusing food and company. When Nelly came inside one night, she found him leaning out the window, intent on his cherished moors. The fire was low and the room was dark. And when Nelly's candle revealed his face, his frightful features made her think he was a ghost.
She thinks about his unknown origins, and wonders if he is human or monster.
Supernatural 10: The next morning, Nelly was alone with Heathcliff during breakfast. He asked Nelly if they were alone, as his eyes fix on a person whom Nelly can't see. He is looking outside the house, and seemed troubled by what the ghost told him. Nelly saw nothing and tried again to get him to eat.
After a late-night walk on the moors, Nelly hears Heathcliff come inside. He is addressing Catherine, and speaking to her as though she were alive and present. The closer Heathcliff grows to death, the more contact he seems to have with Catherine's ghost.
Supernatural 11: Heathcliff gives another clue of Catherine's haunting when he tells Cathy that even if everyone else hated him, there was still one who would want his company, chasing him always.
When Nelly enters Heathcliff's room, his eyes seem to look intensely at her, and his lips to smile. But he is dead, and the window to the moors is wide open. His face looks so strangely happy that Nelly tries to close his eyes, but they will not. His expression of joy seems frozen for all eternity.
Supernatural 12: Many townspeople believe Heathcliff is a ghost, and some claim to have met him along the moors, by the church, or in Wuthering Heights. Joseph also believes he has seen Heathcliff and Catherine looking out her window on rainy nights. One day, Nelly met a terrified shepherd, who was only a young boy. He claimed to have seen Heathcliff and a woman, who would not let him pass on the road. Nelly tries not to believe, but she still does not go out alone at night, or stay alone in the house if she can avoid it.
Violence 1: Mr. Lockwood has a bad introduction to Wuthering Heights when the dogs attack him. Heathcliff warns him that they are not pets, but when Heathcliff leaves the room, Mr. Lockwood makes faces at them. When the dogs attack, Heathcliff does not hurry to help him. It is the maid who finally comes to his aid. Mr. Lockwood is not used to such treatment, and he tells Heathcliff that if he'd been bitten, he would have responded by hitting the dog. After just a few moments in the house, Mr. Lockwood is moved to contemplate violence.
Violence 2: The snow is deep on the moors, but Heathcliff will not give Mr. Lockwood a guide home, nor does he want to let him stay at the Heights. Exasperated, Mr. Lockwood grabs Joseph's lantern and decides to try and get home himself. Joseph does not care that Mr. Lockwood said he would return the lantern, and he sends his dogs to attack him. The dogs do not hurt him, but the trouble gives Mr. Lockwood a nosebleed, and the dogs do not let him alone. Heathcliff laughed at this, and only Zillah, the housemaid, came to his aid.
Violence 3: In Mr. Lockwood's dream, he and Joseph must listen to a preacher moralize about hundreds of sins. When Mr. Lockwood stands up to expose the preacher as a sinner himself, the preacher has the congregation attack him. Everyone, including Joseph, start to attack him with pilgrim sticks, which are meant to aid pilgrims on their travels to holy places.
Violence 4: When the ghost will not let go of Mr. Lockwood, he hurts it, even though it is a child. He drags her arm on the broken glass, and the blood flows onto the bed.
Later Mr. Lockwood nearly witnesses a violent attack against another Catherine. When Mrs. Heathcliff mouths off to her father-in-law, Mr. Lockwood sees her shrink back as though she expects him to hit her. It seems obvious that Heathcliff has hit her before, and he is only holding back because of Mr. Lockwood's presence.
Violence 5: Nelly tells Mr. Lockwood a story from Heathcliff's childhood. Mr. Earnshaw had favored him, and he was able to get whatever he wanted. When Mr. Earnshaw gave each boy a horse, Heathcliff insisted on having the prettier one. When this one got hurt, Heathcliff tried to take Hindley's horse. Heathcliff threatened to tell father about all the times Hindley beat him, and in retaliation, Hindley hit him. Heathcliff seems to want Hindley to hit him, so he will have something to hold against him. Hindley complies, hitting Heathcliff with an iron weight. He tells him to take his horse, and he hopes it kicks him. The boys are very violent towards each other, and Heathcliff knows he can use it to his advantage. He doesn't even need to fight back, because father will always take his side.
Violence 6: The Lintons, though they seem more gentle and civilized, do have violence in their hearts. It is a foolish violence, as Isabella and Edgar fight over a puppy. The violence at the Earnshaw estate is more serious, and the Lintons look silly to Catherine and Heathcliff.
Ironically, Catherine is a victim of violence at the Linton's, when their dog bites her ankle as she and Heathcliff try to escape.
Violence 7: Heathcliff is jealous of Edgar Linton, who is so pale and delicate and well mannered. He hates that Catherine likes him, and when Linton makes a comment about Heathcliff's hair, Heathcliff throws hot applesauce in his face.
Heathcliff's violence is answered with more violence. Hindley took him upstairs and beat him, and when he came back down he told Linton that next time he should beat him himself.
Violence 8: In his madness, Hindley has become violent. He sticks a knife into Nelly's mouth, angry that she had not yet killed his son, as he'd asked. Then his mood changes, and he wants to hug his son. Even affection is violent with him, and the boy pulls away from his father's rough embrace.
Violence 9: Jealous of Isabella's attraction to Heathcliff, Catherine torments her sister-in-law with his presence. Catherine grabs hold of Isabella's arm, and this Earnshaw force drives Isabella to be violent too, sinking her nails into Catherine.
Violence 10: Since Catherine's marriage, Hareton has been solely under the care of Heathcliff, Joseph, and Hindley. Heathcliff is malicious, Joseph is rough, and Hindley is crazy and a drunk. Under their teaching, he has become mean, vulgar, and violent. He throws a stone at Nelly, whose kind care he has already forgotten.
Violence 11: Heathcliff and Catherine are arguing over his conduct with Isabella when Edgar enters. He is not a violent man, and all the agitation makes him breathless and trembling. Finally, after being excessively provoked by Heathcliff, this gentle man hits the brute in the throat.
Violence 12: Nelly is shocked to find Isabella's dog hung from the Grange wall, near death. She soon learns that Isabella ran off with Heathcliff, and it seems likely that Heathcliff performed this vile act. But Isabella allowed him to do it.
Violence 13: Heathcliff makes fun of Isabella, who was not disgusted by any of his violence, so strong was her infatuation. Under the spell of Heathcliff, Isabella changed and grew more hardened and used to violence, but still foolishly expected that her rough husband could love her.
Violence 14: Suffering from the loss of Catherine, Heathcliff hits his head against a tree, causing it to bleed. Nelly sees many bloodstains on the tree, and guesses that Heathcliff had inflicted this pain on himself many times during the night.
Violence 15: Isabella is so repulsed by her husband and Wuthering Heights that she agrees to let Hindley lock Heathcliff out. But she will not agree to violence, believing that no good ever comes of such actions, and the aggressor is often hurt as well. She does not yet share Heathcliff and Hindley's delight in the suffering of others. Both these men are desperate for revenge, with Hindley trying to shoot Heathcliff, and Heathcliff beating Hindley senseless.
Isabella is beginning to enjoy seeing others suffer. After the incident between Hindley and Heathcliff, Isabella is happy to see Heathcliff looking upset, and she taunts him about Catherine until he cries. Her cruel words lead to a cruel act, just as she previously feared--Heathcliff stabs her with a knife. The bigger surprise is that Isabella, wild and changed, throws it back at him, hoping to wound him.
Violence 16: Linton is so weak and ill that Hareton does not have to hit him in order to hurt him. After being forced from the living room, Linton became hysterical and had a terrible coughing fit. Cathy still blamed Hareton, and she hit him with her whip as she left.
Violence 17: When Heathcliff imprisons Cathy and Nelly, Cathy turns violent. She tries to pull the key from his hands, then bites him. Like a caged animal, she frantically tries what she can to get free. To repay her for this act, Heathcliff slapped her head repeatedly.
Violence 18: Cathy teases Hareton so much that finally he cannot stand it anymore. Unable to match her wit, he uses his fists to quiet her.
Violence 19: Cathy angers Heathcliff, and he grabs her hair with the intention of beating her. But something comes over him and he releases her, unexpectedly. It is unusual for Heathcliff to miss a chance to abuse someone, and they do not understand, but are grateful.
It is 1801, and Mr. Lockwood has just returned to Thrushcross Grange from visiting his landlord and neighbor, Mr. Heathcliff. The country is quiet and isolated, and a perfect place for men such as himself and Mr. Heathcliff, who dislike the company of others. But Mr. Heathcliff is more extreme, ignorant of all social graces, shoving his hands into his pockets to avoid shaking hands. Mr. Lockwood found this amusing, and thinks them similar. The servant Joseph took Mr. Lockwood's horse, and the tenant looked around at his landlord's estate. It is called Wuthering Heights, and it is lies next to the moors. Continually battered by wind, the area is barren. Above the entrance to the house is scratched the name Hareton Earnshaw and the date 1500. Mr. Lockwood decided not to ask his unhappy tour guide for the history.
Topic Tracking: Nature 1
They sat down in the sitting room, and Mr. Lockwood looked around. The house and furniture are nice but not extravagant, befitting the average farmer of northern England. But Mr. Heathcliff is quite abnormal in appearance and manner. He is dark-skinned, like a gypsy, but behaves and dresses the part of a gentleman. Mr. Lockwood imagines various reasons for Mr. Heathcliff's cool demeanor, before realizing that his landlord's reasons for this behavior may be quite different from his own.
Mr. Lockwood thinks about his own solitude. He had a chance at love one summer by the sea, but he blew it. He was in love with a beautiful woman, but he never told her. When she figured it out and returned his loving glances, he withdrew in a way that most considered heartless. Because he feels his reputation is undeserved, Mr. Lockwood decides to give Mr. Heathcliff the benefit of the doubt in regards to his cold behavior.
There are several dogs in the sitting room, and Mr. Lockwood pets one. The dog snarls at him, and Mr. Heathcliff warns him to keep his hands to himself. When Mr. Heathcliff goes down into the cellar to fetch Joseph, Mr. Lockwood makes faces at his unfriendly companions. The mother dog lunges at him, and with her came about six more dogs, all trying to attack him. He calls for help, but Mr. Heathcliff is in no hurry; a kitchen servant finally comes to break up the fight. When Mr. Heathcliff finally returns, he does not seem concerned, and even suggests that the dogs were probably protecting his property. When Mr. Heathcliff sees how angry Mr. Lockwood is, he softens, offering him some wine.
Topic Tracking: Violence 1
Mr. Lockwood cheers up, but Mr. Heathcliff seemed to enjoy seeing him suffer, and he did not want to give him any more enjoyment. They sit and talk; Mr. Heathcliff appeared to be very intelligent. But his manners are still the same--when Mr. Lockwood suggested he visit again tomorrow, Mr. Heathcliff gave him no encouragement to return. Still, he decided to visit tomorrow, and talk again to the man who makes him seem friendly in comparison.
The next day was cold and wet. Mr. Lockwood planned to lounge by the fire, but a servant was cleaning it. So instead he took the four-mile walk to Wuthering Heights, and as he arrived, the first flakes of snow were beginning to fall. No one is around, and he has to jump the gate. He bangs on the door without answer, and while cursing the inhabitant's lack of hospitality, Joseph appears. He tells him that Mr. Heathcliff is in the fields, and only the Missus is inside. She will not open the door. Joseph leaves and Mr. Lockwood tries the door again. Then a young man appears through the snow, and leads him inside.
Inside is a young woman, who ignores her new guest. Mr. Lockwood tries to strike up a conversation, and he asks her which of the house's animals are her favorites. He mistakenly suggests what he thinks are cats, but which are actually dead rabbits. When she gets up to make the tea, Mr. Lockwood notices how young and beautiful she is. If only her eyes and face had a more pleasant expression, she would be irresistible. She rejects Mr. Lockwood's offer of help, and when she learns he was not asked to tea, refuses to make him any. The young man who let Mr. Lockwood inside was crude and menacing, unhappy to see this stranger at the fire. When Mr. Heathcliff finally enters the tense room, he too is annoyed at the sight of Mr. Lockwood. The snow falls quickly, making the paths hidden and the crossing dangerous. Mr. Lockwood, noticing his annoyance, asks Mr. Heathcliff for a guide home, but he will offer none. Mr. Heathcliff's stubborn refusal to help him, and his gruff manner with Mrs. Heathcliff, lead Mr. Lockwood to think he misjudged Mr. Heathcliff when he thought him a nice person.
Mr. Lockwood tries to make conversation during the meal, but blunders when he calls the woman Mr. Heathcliff's wife, and the boy Mr. Heathcliff's son. Offended and amused, Heathcliff tells him that Mrs. Heathcliff is his daughter-in-law, and the young man, Hareton Earnshaw, is not his son. An uncomfortable silence settled over the rest of the meal.
Night is falling, and Mr. Lockwood starts to imply that getting home is impossible, and he will need to stay the night. All three ignore him. Joseph gets angry with Mrs. Heathcliff for her idleness, and she curses him viciously. Mr. Lockwood tries to appeal to her for help, but she has none to offer. There are only five at the house, not enough to send one as his guide. Mr. Lockwood suggests he will have to stay, and Mr. Heathcliff reprimands him for making the trip over in this weather. He has no guest bedroom, and when Mr. Lockwood proposes he will sleep here by the fire, Mr. Heathcliff says this is inappropriate, because he could not guard the house from him. Disgusted, Mr. Lockwood makes a run for it. Mrs. Heathcliff and Hareton suggest helping Mr. Lockwood, but Mr. Heathcliff will have none of it. So Mr. Lockwood grabs a lantern from Joseph, promising to return it tomorrow. Joseph sends his dogs to attack him. Mr. Lockwood is hurt more by his own agitation than by dog bites. But the dogs will not leave him alone, and the others watch and laugh, until Zillah, the maidservant, breaks up the fight. She brings him inside, and in his weakened condition, he is forced to spend the night.
Topic Tracking: Violence 2
Zillah leads Mr. Lockwood upstairs, urging him to be quiet, because Mr. Heathcliff did not like to let guests stay in this room. She was a new servant, and did not know why the room was off limits. The bed is enclosed, and complete with a closet and window ledge. The ledge holds several books, and in the wood names are scratched: Catherine Earnshaw, Catherine Heathcliff, Catherine Linton. Troubled by and curious of these names, Mr. Lockwood is unable to sleep. He examines the books on the ledge. They all belong to Catherine Earnshaw, and are full of writings in the margins, like a makeshift diary. Mr. Lockwood begins to read. The first one he reads describes the cruelty of Hindley, Catherine's older brother. Their father is recently dead, and Hindley does not treat Catherine and Heathcliff well. They are subjected to a three-hour church service in the damp attic, and cannot play, as Hindley demands perfect quiet. Frances, Hindley's wife, joins in the tyranny. The children try to play quietly, but Joseph finds them and gets angry. He presses some religious books on them, but Catherine and Heathcliff throw them across the room. Joseph, who thinks the devil will come for such rotten children, yells for Hindley. While awaiting punishment, Catherine writes this entry. Catherine writes the next day, complaining that Heathcliff has been reduced to a servant, and forbidden from playing with her.
Mr. Lockwood starts to doze. He sees a book title, "Seventy Times Seven, and the First of the Seventy First. A Pious Discourse delivered by the Reverend Jabes Branderham, in the Chapel of Gimmerden Sough", and in his dream he and Joseph are walking to a chapel to hear Jabes Branderham preach this sermon. The snow is deep, but Joseph has a pilgrim stick to help him get into the chapel. Mr. Lockwood thinks that he, Joseph, or Branderham have committed that "First of the Seventy First," and are going to be revealed as sinners and thrown out of the church. The church is in disrepair, because the townspeople are too cheap to fix it, but in his dream it is full of people. The sermon has four hundred and ninety parts, each for a different sin. Sleepy and bored, at the mention of the "First of the Seventy First," Mr. Lockwood "was moved to rise and denounce Jabes Branderham as the sinner of the sin that no Christian need pardon." Chapter 3, pg. 20 He yells that all this preaching is too much, and Branderham preaches that Mr. Lockwood has committed the "First of the Seventy First." The preacher orders the congregation to punish Mr. Lockwood, and they begin to attack him with their pilgrim sticks. Branderham taps on the pulpit, and Mr. Lockwood awakens, realizing the tapping is only a fir tree at the window, and he is in the bed.
Topic Tracking: Violence 3
Half awake and determined to quiet the fir tree, Mr. Lockwood breaks the glass when the window won't open. He reaches out to grab the tree and grabs a small cold hand! It would not let go, and the hand's owner, a child calling herself Catherine Linton, begs to be let inside. But "Terror made me cruel; and finding it useless to attempt shaking the creature off, I pulled its wrist on to the broken pane, and rubbed it to and fro till the blood ran down and soaked the bedclothes..." Chapter 3, pg. 22 He finally tricks her into letting go, pulls his hand inside, and piles books before the window. When they begin to move, and her cries still continue, Mr. Lockwood screams in terror.
Topic Tracking: Supernatural 1
The scream brought Mr. Heathcliff, who was shocked and angry to see Mr. Lockwood in this room. Mr. Lockwood tells him angrily about Branderham, and the evil little ghost, Catherine Linton. Remembering Heathcliff's name in her diary, he regrets this admission. While Heathcliff tries to calm his rage, Mr. Lockwood leaves the room. It is near morning, and he will leave for home shortly. As he is leaving, he sees Mr. Heathcliff throw open the window and call for the ghost to return.
Topic Tracking: Madness 1
Mr. Lockwood waits in the kitchen, and is nodding off when Joseph comes downstairs. Hareton escorts him to the room where the master is, reprimanding Zillah for letting Lockwood sleep in that room. Mr. Heathcliff and Catherine are arguing bitterly. They stop a few moments after he enters, and after breakfast, Mr. Heathcliff walks Mr. Lockwood home through the moors. They are covered deep with snow, and the path has vanished. He only leads him to the gate of the Grange. With two more miles to walk until the house, Mr. Lockwood falls into a snowdrift, and it is several hours before he arrives home.
Topic Tracking: Violence 4
Despite his determination, after his unhappy visit at the Heights, to avoid all human contact, Mr. Lockwood found himself asking his maid, Mrs. Nelly Dean, to sit and talk while he ate. His walk in the snow made him ill, and in his incapacitated state, he desired company. Mrs. Dean tells him she has lived at the Grange for eighteen years, since her mistress married and moved into the house. When her mistress died, she remained as housekeeper. Mr. Lockwood thinks he would like to hear some stories about his landlord, and the beautiful Mrs. Heathcliff, so he asks Mrs. Dean why Mr. Heathcliff chooses to rent out the Grange, which is a nicer property than Wuthering Heights. It is because he is cheap, she tells him, and greedy. With his only son dead, he has no family with whom he can share his wealth.
Mrs. Dean tells him that Mrs. Heathcliff's maiden name was Catherine Linton, and her father was Mrs. Dean's late master. The Linton family once owned the Grange, and the Earnshaws owned the Heights. Hareton Earnshaw, the coarse youth at the Heights, is the nephew of the late Mrs. Linton. Mrs. Heathcliff married her cousin, the child of Heathcliff and Mr. Linton's sister. The Earnshaw family is very old and only Hareton remains of it. Mrs. Dean asks Mr. Lockwood how Catherine looked, and about the behavior of Mr. Heathcliff. He is sorry to tell her that the first is unhappy, the second is rough and mean. Mr. Lockwood asks Mrs. Dean about Mr. Heathcliff's past, and she agrees to tell it. She knows everything except where he came from, or who his parents were. Mrs. Dean grabs some sewing, then starts her story.
Before she was moved to the Grange, Mrs. Dean lived and worked at Wuthering Heights. Her mother cared for Hindley Earnshaw, Hareton's father, and young Nelly Dean worked around the house and played with the children. One morning the father left for business in Liverpool, and asked his children, Hindley and Catherine, what he should bring back for them. They each named something, and then he left. Late on the third day he returned, with a small dark child. It was dirty and no one could understand its talk. Mrs. Earnshaw was very angry, and she and the children wanted him to get rid of it. He found the child wandering alone in Liverpool, and when he could not find its family, he took it home with him. The presents father had promised were broken or lost in his bringing the child home, and this made the children dislike the little orphan even more. The children wouldn't sleep with it, and Nelly left him to sleep on the stair landing, which got her in trouble.
They gave him one name, Heathcliff, and he soon made good friends with Catherine, but Hindley hated him. Only Catherine and her father treated Heathcliff well; the rest of the house made no efforts for him. Protective, Mr. Earnshaw made Heathcliff his favorite over all his children, which made Hindley hate him even more. Even Nelly grew to like Heathcliff more, though she could not understand why father loved such a sullen child. Knowing he was the favorite, Heathcliff soon took advantage of his position. When Heathcliff demanded he and Hindley exchange horses when his own became lame, the two had a terrible fight. Hindley was forced to give in, and Nelly convinced Heathcliff to keep quiet about the bruises he had received. Having gotten what he wanted, Heathcliff agreed. Nelly thought his silence was a sign of character, but soon found out how wrong this idea was.
Topic Tracking: Violence 5
Mr. Earnshaw became ill, and any attacks on his favorite, Heathcliff, made him furious. Hindley would often raise him to a frenzy with such attacks, and he was sent away to college, in the hopes his behavior would improve. But there was not peace in the house, as Catherine and Joseph often quarreled. Joseph was annoying with his misplaced morality. He used the Bible to elevate himself and chastise others. In his weak health Mr. Earnshaw was easily persuaded by his sermons, which were full of horrible tales about Catherine and Heathcliff. Mr. Earnshaw was a firm and serious father, and Catherine's wild and disrespectful behavior made him angry. She could be a sweet child, but was very mischievous. She liked to annoy everyone, and to tease her father with Heathcliff's eagerness to do what she wanted. She always asked for forgiveness at night, at which her father would say: "I cannot love thee; thou 'rt worse than thy brother. Go, say thy prayers, child, and ask God's pardon. I doubt thy mother and I must rue that we ever reared thee!" Chapter 5, pg. 38 She would cry, then pretend indifference.
One night during a big storm, the family lounged by the fire. Catherine had been sick, and father was enjoying her peacefulness. With his daughter at his feet, Mr. Earnshaw died. He passed quietly, and they first thought him asleep. It was Catherine who realized he was dead and she and Heathcliff ran off to console each other, imagining a beautiful heaven for father.
Topic Tracking: Nature 2
Hindley came home for the funeral and brought his wife. He hadn't told anyone about her, even his father. Frances was cheerful and happy, but also very afraid of dying, despite her generally good health. Hindley had grown thin during his absence, and his behavior had worsened. The servants, who were used to being treated like members of the family, were now relegated to the kitchen, Nelly included. Frances at first fussed over her new sister, then tired of her and grew disagreeable. Hindley ruled with an iron fist, sending Heathcliff to work in the fields, and stopping his education. Catherine would teach Heathcliff her school lessons, and they ran wild together in the moors. They were often punished, Catherine with Bible lessons, Heathcliff with beatings. One night the two disappeared entirely, and could not be found. Heathcliff returned alone. Catherine had stayed at Thrushcross Grange, but Heathcliff was not asked to stay. He told Nelly that he and Cathy snuck off to the Grange, to see if the Lintons spent their Sunday nights in forced prayer. They ran across the moors, and peered in one of the windows. The room was lavishly decorated, and the two children, Edgar and Isabella, were alone in the room. But they were not enjoying their beautiful home; rather, they were crying after nearly tearing a puppy between them. Heathcliff and Catherine laughed, and the children heard them and cried for their parents. They tried to run away, but a dog grabbed Catherine by the ankle. Unwilling to leave, he cursed and tried to free her from the vicious jaws. When the servant saw the dog had a small child, he pulled him off and took Catherine inside. The Lintons did not recognize them at first, and imagined that the children were trying to rob them. Edgar finally saw it was Catherine Earnshaw, and Mr. and Mrs. Linton were shocked that Hindley would let her run wild with a gypsy child. At their criticism, Heathcliff started swearing again, and the servant took him outside. The Lintons, offended by his language, ushered him out. Inside, Catherine sat on the couch, and they tended to her wounded ankle, combed her hair and placed her by the fire. They were all very taken with her.
Topic Tracking: Violence 6
Hindley, not surprisingly, was very angry. He grew more so when Mr. Linton paid him a visit and criticized how he raises his family. Hindley's punishment was not to beat Heathcliff, but to forbid him and Catherine from speaking to each other. If they chose to, he would throw Heathcliff out.
Catherine stayed at Thrushcross Grange for five weeks, until her ankle was healed. She returned around Christmas, a very changed young woman. She was dressed in nice clothes, she exhibited good manners, and carried herself in a more reserved, polished manner. Hindley and Frances both remarked on how beautiful she looked, with her new dress and manners. Heathcliff had grown more coarse and dirty in Catherine's absence, and he was reluctant to greet his old friend. She was amazed at how dirty he was, and he caught her looking down at her own spotless clothes. He moved away from her angrily.
The Lintons were invited to visit Wuthering Heights the next morning. They came under the condition that Heathcliff would be kept away from them and their children, which Hindley was happy to oblige. During the preparations for their visit, Nelly thought about Mr. Earnshaw, and his fondness for Heathcliff. In his honor, she decided to help the young boy, offering to help him clean himself before the guests arrived tomorrow. But Heathcliff ignored her, avoided Catherine's company, and spent the next morning wandering the moors while the others were at church. But he returned, and asked for Nelly's help in getting cleaned. She scolded him for having hurt Catherine's feelings, and he told her that his were hurt even more. Nelly tried to make the jealous Heathcliff feel better, praising him for his strength. But even the ability to knock little Edgar to the floor did not excite Heathcliff, who knew he was inferior to Edgar in face, manners, and wealth. Nelly told Heathcliff that he only had to adopt a better expression, and he would be handsome too. But Heathcliff did not understand her, and thought it impossible either for a good heart to make a good face, or for him to have a good heart. They were interrupted by the sound of the Lintons' carriage arriving.
Nelly sent Heathcliff out to join the party, but Hindley, perhaps angry at Heathcliff's clean appearance, sent him back to the kitchen. Edgar Linton saw Heathcliff, and made a joke about his hair. Angrily, Heathcliff grabbed a pan of hot apple sauce, and threw it in Edgar's face. Edgar began to cry, and Hindley shut Heathcliff upstairs. Catherine tried to put on a good face, but she missed her companion, and looked for an opportunity to include him. But he was not allowed, even when they were short a dance partner. There was a band, and they sung carols, which gave Catherine the opportunity to sneak upstairs and visit with Heathcliff. She made Nelly bring Heathcliff down and give him something to eat. When asked what he was thinking, Heathcliff told Nelly: "I'm trying to settle how I shall pay Hindley back. I don't care how long I wait, if I can only do it at last. I hope he will not die before I do!" Chapter 7, pg. 54 Shocked, Nelly told him that God punishes the wicked, to which Heathcliff replied that God would not have his satisfaction in punishing Hindley.
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Mrs. Dean stops her story here, for fear she is boring Mr. Lockwood. But he is not, and he wants to hear more, without her skipping anything. He has fallen into the mood of this country, whose people, "do live more in earnest, more in themselves, and less in surface change, and frivolous external things." Chapter 8, pg. 56 After a brief discussion about how Nelly fits into this group, she continues with her story in the summer of 1778, almost twenty-three years ago.
That June, Frances gave birth to Hareton, the last of the Earnshaw line. The doctor, Mr. Kenneth, does not think Frances will survive. She has been sick, and is not expected to last beyond winter. Hindley did not believe the doctor; his wife was his most important person, other than himself, and he could not imagine life without her. Frances was happy and talkative, right up until the week she died. Hindley, who always persisted that his wife would get better, was broken at her loss. He ignored his son, while he sulked and cursed the loss of his wife. His behavior became so bad that all the servants, with the exception of Joseph and Nelly, left the Heights. He treated Heathcliff worse of all, and Nelly thought she could see evil in the boy.
The house took on a fiendish reputation, and guests stopped calling. Only Edgar Linton came to visit Catherine. At fifteen and stubborn, Nelly admits she did not like the girl, and thought her arrogant. Catherine did remain loyal to Heathcliff, despite her association with Linton. Mrs. Dean showed Mr. Lockwood the painting of Edgar, her former master. Edgar looked delicate and thoughtful, and Mr. Lockwood can see his advantages over Heathcliff. Catherine's portrait had been removed.
Mrs. Dean continues, telling Mr. Lockwood that Catherine was friendly with the Lintons. With them, she displayed perfect manners, gaining their admiration. But at home, where there was no reward, she abandoned these manners, splitting herself in two. When Edgar visited, Catherine tried to keep him and Heathcliff apart, because she found much of Heathcliff's criticism of Edgar justified. She did not overtly try to attract Edgar, but he was still falling in love with her.
One day when Hindley was gone, Heathcliff took this opportunity to have a relaxing day.
His education was long forgotten, as was the self-confidence he gained from being father's favorite. Shabbily dressed, he was so reserved he appeared mute or dumb. Though he and Catherine were still friends, "he had ceased to express his fondness for her in words, and recoiled with angry suspicion from her girlish caresses, as if conscious there could be no gratification in lavishing such marks of affection on him." Chapter 8, pg. 61 Still, with Hindley gone that day, his first thought was that he and Catherine could play together. But she had invited Edgar over, thinking Heathcliff would be out of the house. He complained that she was spending more time with the Lintons than himself, but Catherine argued back that his company was terrible, because he had nothing to say. She never complained about his company before, but having new friends changed her opinions. Edgar entered as Heathcliff left.
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There was some trouble because Nelly would not leave the room. Hindley asked her to supervise any visits Edgar made alone, and she invented excuses to remain. Angry at this lack of privacy, Catherine ordered her out, but she refused. Catherine pinched her, and Nelly was quick to show it's mark to Edgar. In a fury, Catherine shook little Hareton, who wandered into the quarrel. Shocked, Edgar pulled the child from her, and Catherine yanked his ear in retribution. Edgar started to leave, and Catherine started weeping. Unable to leave his love, he tried to console her. And when Nelly came in later to tell them Hindley was home, the two had moved past friendship and admitted themselves as lovers. Edgar left to avoid Hindley, and Nelly removed the bullets from Hindley's gun, to keep him from doing harm in his drunken state.
Hindley came in drunk and stumbling. Hareton hid from his father, who was either savagely affectionate or violently angry. He saw the child, and threatened to stab Nelly. He had the knife in her mouth when he changed moods; confused at first, he wanted to cut Hareton's hair, then to get a kiss from his son. His father carried him up the stairs, and at the sound of footsteps approaching, Hareton squirmed out of his father's arms. Heathcliff, who had been waiting for an opportunity to exact revenge on Hindley, lost his chance when his reflexes and sudden impulse made him grab the boy. Heathcliff was angry, Hindley was angry, but Hareton seemed unhurt. Hindley tried to approach the child again, but Nelly said everyone hates him, and he should not touch the child again. He threatened Heathcliff, and drank some more, to Nelly's dismay.
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Nelly was singing to Hareton when Catherine came in, hoping to speak with her. Heathcliff was in the room, but when Nelly told Catherine he was outside, he said nothing. Catherine wanted to tell Nelly a secret--Edgar had asked her to marry him, and she had said yes. She loves Edgar, but was not confident in her decision to marry him. He was the responsible choice, but her heart said no:
"It would degrade me to marry Heathcliff now; so he shall never know how I love him: and that, not because he's handsome, Nelly, but because he's more myself than I am. Whatever our souls are made of, his and mine are the same; and Linton's is as different a moonbeam from lightning, or frost from fire." Chapter 9, pg. 73
Heathcliff heard her say it would degrade her to marry him, then left the room before she said the rest. Nelly heard him go, but said nothing. Catherine was anxious that Heathcliff not hear, because she doesn't know how he feels about her.
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Catherine was determined that as Mrs. Linton, she would be able to better help her impoverished friend. When Nelly told her this is a terrible reason for marriage, Catherine replied that it is the best, because it is unselfish--she would be helping the most important person in her life:
"If all else perished, and he remained, I should still continue to be; and if all else remained, and he were annihilated, the universe would turn to a mighty stranger: I should not seem a part of it...Nelly, I am Heathcliff! He's always, always in my mind: not as a pleasure, any more than I am always a pleasure to myself, but as my own being." Chapter 8, pg. 74
At dinner, Heathcliff could not be found. Nelly told Catherine that he heard some of what she said, and Catherine started looking for him in a panic. He was gone, and Catherine stayed outside looking for him despite a violent thunderstorm. She stayed up in her wet clothes, and caught cold. Catherine was very ill, but she recovered. Nelly blamed Heathcliff's departure on her, and Catherine refused to speak to her. Everyone indulged Catherine, fearful she will fall ill again. And then, three years after her father's death, Catherine married Edgar. They moved to the Grange, and Nelly sadly left Hareton at the Heights, to care for his ill father.
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At this point in the story Mrs. Dean sees how late it is, and postpones the storytelling until tomorrow.
Mr. Lockwood was sick for four weeks. Perhaps a bit guilty, Mr. Heathcliff has visited him once. Mr. Lockwood calls Nelly to come back and tell him more of the story.
Life with the newlyweds at Thrushcross Grange was good. Edgar and Isabella bent to every wish of Catherine's, out of fear of aggravating her health. In such an environment, Catherine could not help but be happy. But this happiness ended when Heathcliff returned. Clean, well dressed, handsome, and well spoken, he was lifted out of the poverty of body and mind in which he was raised. He wanted to speak to Catherine, and Nelly reluctantly arranged a private meeting. Edgar was angry to hear that his old rival returned, so Catherine contained some of her ecstasy for the sake of her husband. She invited Heathcliff inside, and Edgar did his best to appear civil when Heathcliff spoke to his wife as though she was his intimate. After the visit, Heathcliff returned to Wuthering Heights, where he'd been invited to stay by Mr. Earnshaw.
That night Catherine came to talk to Nelly. She complained that Edgar was acting sick and sullen, jealous of Heathcliff. He did not like to hear her praising the new and improved Heathcliff. He gained residence at the Heights because he agreed to pay a lot of money, and because Hindley is too drunk and crazy to care much who he associates with now. He moved to the Heights in the hopes of seeing Catherine often, and the next day she visited him, with Isabella as chaperone. Unfortunately for everyone, Isabella developed a crush on the dark stranger, an idea that repulsed her brother. Heathcliff did not care for Isabella at all. When Catherine realized that Isabella liked Heathcliff, she scolded her for liking such a terrible man. Isabella didn't listen, thinking Catherine jealous. Nelly affirmed Catherine's description of his character, telling her that he will unfairly gain the Earnshaw estate as crazy Hindley gambles it away.
The next day, Edgar was away and Heathcliff visited. He found Catherine and Isabella alone, and the scene was very uncomfortable. Catherine taunted Isabella, and Heathcliff learned for the first time that Isabella had feelings for him. When Isabella fled the room, Heathcliff asked if Isabella is the heir to the Linton fortune, but she is not. They talk no more of this, and Heathcliff's visits continued, to the dismay of Nelly and Edgar.
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One day, Nelly passed by the road to the Heights on her way to Gimmerton, when she was seized with an urge to visit the Heights. She was suddenly afraid that something was wrong with little Hareton, whom she had not seen in nearly a year. When she reached the gate, she saw that the boy was physically fine, but mentally and emotionally stunted. He did not remember her, and threw a rock at her. He cursed her, God, and his father--all lessons he learned from Heathcliff. Nelly sent the boy to get Hindley, but when Heathcliff appeared, Nelly ran away.
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Seeing how Heathcliff turned Hindley's own son against him, Nelly became more determined to keep Isabella away from him. One day he came to the Heights, and when he thought no one was looking, he kissed Isabella! Nelly saw, and told Catherine. Catherine, who had asked Heathcliff to leave Isabella alone, started yelling at him. He was using Isabella to hurt Catherine, who he claimed had treated him terribly. He told her:
"I seek no revenge on you....That's not the plan. The tyrant grinds down his slaves and they don't turn against him; they crush those beneath him...Having levelled my place, don't erect a hovel and complacently admire your own charity in giving me that for a home." Chapter 11, pg. 103
Catherine told Heathcliff that like the devil, his only joy lies in causing suffering. His ill-treatment of her relatives is surely the quickest way to revenge her.
Nelly left them to find Mr. Linton. She told him about the kiss, and the argument with Mrs. Linton. Angrily, he sent for several servants to help remove Heathcliff from the house. Edgar belittled Heathcliff, but would not fight him. Catherine urged him to do so, taunting her husband with his weakness. Heathcliff is much larger, and the delicate Edgar has a trembling fit. Finally, provoked by Heathcliff, Edgar punched him in the throat. Edgar left as Heathcliff recovered himself, and Heathcliff reluctantly left before Edgar and his servants returned. Catherine was wild with anger, and determined to get her own revenge:
"Well, if I cannot keep Heathcliff for my friend--if Edgar will be mean and jealous, I'll try to break their hearts by breaking my own. That will be a prompt way of finishing all, when I am pushed to extremity!" Chapter 11, pg. 107
When Edgar returned, he gave Catherine an ultimatum--her husband or her friend. Catherine ran from the room, and had a violent, breathless fit. Edgar was worried, but Nelly told him Catherine was faking. At this statement, Catherine ran to her room, and stayed there, refusing to eat. Edgar did not ask about Catherine; he made sure that Isabella knew that any union with Heathcliff would sever her from the family.
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In the following days Isabella moped, Edgar waited, and Catherine fasted in her room. On the third day, she opened the door and asked Nelly for some gruel, because she felt she was dying. She ate, moaning that Edgar didn't miss her. Miserably, she asked Nelly what her husband was doing; when Nelly answered that he read in the library, Catherine went crazy. She was certain she was dying, and she couldn't understand why he was not more concerned.
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Nelly did nothing to calm her wild mistress, but soon realized how bad off she was. Catherine tore at her pillows with her teeth, and cannot recognize her own face in the mirror. She is delusional, and has trouble remembering the time or place. She made Nelly open a window, anxious to feel the air from the moors. She yelled out to Heathcliff that even if she dies, she will not rest until they are together.
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Topic Tracking: Madness 5
At this commotion, Edgar entered, and helped Nelly move Catherine from the window. He was shocked at the deterioration of his wife, and angry that Nelly did not tell him how bad she was. Catherine scorned Edgar, telling him that her love and her soul belong not to him, but to the moors and to Heathcliff. Nelly left the room, leaving Catherine to rave at Edgar. Outside, she saw Isabella's dog hanging from a wall, nearly dead. Nelly cut it down, and thought she heard hoofbeats in the distance. Mr. Kenneth, the doctor, told Nelly that Catherine was very ill and may not live. The doctor told her that Heathcliff was seen with Isabella; they were planning to run away together. In a panic, Nelly checked on her, but Isabella was gone. A servant girl delivered the news to Edgar, as someone told her that the two ran off together. Edgar was disappointed and sad, but his sister left willingly, and so he does not try to bring her home.
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Two months passed. There was no word from Isabella, and Catherine changed as a result of her illness: a brain fever. Edgar took care of her, and she was eventually out of danger. Depressed and listless, Catherine missed the moors, and wished to be outside again. Nelly and Edgar decided she was well enough to be moved downstairs, but still too weak to go out of doors. They wished for her full recovery, especially because Catherine was pregnant.
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Edgar received a note from Isabella telling of her marriage to Heathcliff, but he did not answer it. It was Nelly to whom Isabella wrote next. Isabella and Heathcliff had been staying at Wuthering Heights, and she is miserable. She felt sorry for her impulsive act, and wished to see Edgar. She told Nelly of her horrible situation, asking her not to let her brother know how bad things are. She wonders now if she married a man or a devil, so malicious and cold is her husband. She hoped for friends or allies in the house, but little Hareton is an ignorant, violent child; Hindley is mad, and Joseph a disagreeable, self-righteous crab. She was not offered any comfort or hospitality when she arrived. She made dinner poorly, and no one was very happy with her. There was no maid, and no decent bedroom she could sleep in except for Heathcliff's. She dozed on a chair in Hareton's room, as Heathcliff's was locked. But when her husband returned, he had no intention of letting her sleep in his room, and told her that he blamed Edgar for Catherine's illness, and was going to use her to get his revenge.
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The letter ended with a plea from Isabella that Nelly visit her at Wuthering Heights the next day.
After reading the letter, Nelly went to Edgar to tell him that his sister was at Wuthering Heights, and that she asked for forgiveness. But there is no use for forgiveness, since he felt she was lost from him forever. So Nelly made her trip to the Heights alone, and found Isabella anxiously waiting. The house and Isabella were dirty and neglected, and Heathcliff looked like a fine gentleman next to his dirty wife. She expected a letter from her brother, but Nelly had nothing to give her. Heathcliff asked about Catherine, and Nelly told him that it would be best for Catherine if he stayed away from her. She was a different person in appearance and personality, and only a shadow of Catherine Earnshaw remained in her. But Heathcliff is not willing to leave Catherine with Edgar, whose love is weak, and who is unfit for Catherine's love: "It is not in him to be loved like me: how can she love in him what he has not?" Chapter 14, pg. 137 Nelly and Isabella insist that the couple is fond of each other, but to a man of passions like Heathcliff, that is like blasphemy. He laughs at his marriage to Isabella, who in her love struck blindness thought him a romantic hero. She has since learned better, but Heathcliff likes to taunt her with her foolish passion, completely unrequited by him. Hopeless, she takes any abuse, and comes crawling back. Despite his mean temper and violent tendencies, she did not draw back from him, and Heathcliff found this delicious.
Topic Tracking: Violence 13
Topic Tracking: Madness 7
Heathcliff tossed Isabella from the room so he may speak to Nelly in private. He was determined to see Catherine despite any obstacles, at any cost. Nelly warned him that the excitement could harm her, but he did not believe her. Nelly finally agreed, and promised to deliver a letter to Catherine.
At this point Nelly stops her story, because Mr. Kenneth has arrived to check on Mr. Lockwood. He thinks how lucky he is not to have fallen for Mrs. Heathcliff, with the chance she could turn out like her mother.
It is a week later, and Mr. Lockwood has heard all of Mrs. Dean's stories. He continues with the story, repeating what he heard: Nelly returned from the Heights with Heathcliff's letter, and it took her three days to decide to give Catherine the letter, so fearful was she of its effect. That Sunday when the family went to church, Nelly was alone with Catherine, and took this opportunity to give her the letter. Catherine was very different--calm, quiet, almost ghostly in appearance and mood. She would sit and do nothing, usually refusing Edgar's kindness.
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Nelly opened the letter, and Catherine showed no interest in it until she was told Heathcliff sent it. Catherine sighed, but gave no answer as to whether Heathcliff should be let in to visit. But he was already outside, and he walked into the house and greeted an eager Catherine, with a long embrace. He was shocked by her appearance, but Catherine was angry. She accused he and Edgar of killing her, of breaking her heart. She saw how healthy Heathcliff looked, and she accused him of flourishing while she withered. She thinks he will forget her when she is gone, and love another. Heathcliff cannot bear this, and tells her she is wrong, he can never forget her, nor these hurtful things she has said to him. But he pulls away from her, and she says to Nelly: "That is how I'm loved! Well, never mind. That is not my Heathcliff. I shall love mine yet; and take him with me: he's in my soul." Chapter 15, pg. 146 She speaks eagerly of leaving her current life, and Heathcliff finally comes to her, in an embrace so strong it is almost vicious. Heathcliff asks her why she betrayed them, marrying Edgar? It is all her fault, he tells her--nothing could tear them apart, except her own actions. When she asks him for forgiveness, he says: "Kiss me again, but don't let me see your eyes! I forgive what you have done to me. I love my murderer--but yours! How can I?" Chapter 15, pg. 148
Topic Tracking: Madness 8
Topic Tracking: Nature 7
They remained in each other's arms until the others started to return from church. Nelly urged Heathcliff to go, but when Catherine told him this would be the last time they see each other, he cannot leave her. He held her, and she lay faint in his arms as Edgar entered the room. Edgar revived Catherine and Nelly finally made Heathcliff go. He planned to wait by the trees in the garden, and made Nelly promise to tell him any news that passes.
At midnight, Catherine gave birth to a baby girl, which was named Catherine. Two hours later, the mother died, without ever being conscious enough to ask for anyone. Edgar sunk into a deep sorrow, and the baby was at first ignored. Nelly found Edgar lying with the body, who was peaceful, finally at rest. But Nelly wondered if Catherine was heaven-bound. She went outside to find Heathcliff and tell him the terrible news, but he had already guessed it. He asked how she died, and if she asked for him. But she died quietly, and was not conscious enough to ask for anyone. Furious, Heathcliff called her a liar, and hoped Catherine awakens in hell:
"And I pray one prayer--I repeat it till my tongue stiffens--Catherine Earnshaw, may you not rest as long as I am living! You said I killed you--haunt me, then!...Be with me always--take any form--drive me mad! only do not leave me in this abyss, where I cannot find you! Oh God! it is unutterable! I cannot live without my life! I cannot live without my soul!" Chapter 16, pg. 153
He hit his head against a nearby tree in anguish.
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Topic Tracking: Supernatural 6
Topic Tracking: Violence 14
Before the funeral, Edgar stayed with the body. Heathcliff was able to sneak a visit, and placed a lock of his hair into the locket Catherine wore. Nelly added a piece of Catherine's, and wound them together. When she was buried, it was not in the chapel or the Linton's monument, but in a corner of the graveyard where the plants of the moors creep inside.
Topic Tracking: Nature 9
Summer ended and the moors were soon covered with snow. Nelly was rocking little Catherine when she heard someone come in, laughing. She was very surprised to see it was Isabella, who ran all the way from Wuthering Heights. She was soaking, without a coat, and had a deep cut under one ear. She changed her clothes and let Nelly tend her wound only after the coachman was ordered to get ready. Isabella was running away from Heathcliff.
Topic Tracking: Nature 10
Isabella asked Nelly to put the baby away; she grieved for Catherine, but not for Heathcliff, who had become even more crazy since her death. Isabella smashed her wedding ring and threw it in the fire. She told Nelly that she would stay, and help her brother, except that Heathcliff would never let her live in peace at Thrushcross Grange. She no longer loved him, and his hate has grown stronger. Isabella wished he were dead, but Nelly scolded her, reminding her that he is still a person, and not the worst one on earth. But Isabella isn't even sure he is a man; he broke her heart, and she cannot feel any pity for him.
Topic Tracking: Supernatural 7
Isabella told Nelly that Hindley did not attend Catherine's funeral, because he could not keep himself sober. Heathcliff had been absent for nearly a week, roaming the moors and coming home at dawn. He would lock himself up and recite terrible prayers, then head down to the Grange. Without Heathcliff around, Isabella was compelled to socialize with the sermonizing Joseph, ignorant little Hareton, or crazy Hindley. She preferred Hindley, because he would leave her alone. But that night when Heathcliff came home, Hindley asked for Isabella's help to keep the master out of the house. Then he asked her to keep quiet so he could kill Heathcliff. Disliking violence, Isabella warned her husband, who didn't listen to her. With all the doors bolted, Heathcliff broke open a window. Hindley shot his gun, and its attached knife cut Hindley. Heathcliff deepened the cut, jumped inside, and began beating Hindley, who lay injured on the floor. He could have killed him, but after the beating he bound Hindley's wounds. Isabella ran for Joseph, and Heathcliff tossed the servant onto the bloody floor, then threw Isabella there as well. He made Isabella convince Joseph not to go for help.
The next morning at breakfast, Hindley and Heathcliff sat quietly by the fire. Heathcliff looked troubled, and Isabella enjoyed his pain. She asked Hindley how he was, and told him how much Heathcliff had beaten on him while he was unconscious. She blamed Heathcliff for Catherine's death, and surprisingly, he started to cry. Isabella laughed at him, taunting him. When she suggested that if Catherine had married Heathcliff, she would have grown to hate him, Heathcliff threw a knife at her, stabbing her in the neck. She threw it back and ran from the house. At the completion of her story, Isabella left. She moved to the south of England and gave birth to a little boy whom she named Linton. Unfortunately, Heathcliff heard about the child. But when Isabella died, she left twelve year old Linton to her brother Edgar's care.
Topic Tracking: Violence 15
Edgar was happy to hear Isabella left her husband. Hoping to avoid Heathcliff, Edgar became a hermit, rarely leaving the Grange's land. Unlike Heathcliff, he hoped Catherine was at peace, and he grieved quietly. Little Catherine soon became his chief concern. He loved her very much, and Nelly thought often of the difference between Hindley and Edgar's response to their grief. Hindley died six months after his sister, unfortunately leaving Hareton in the care of Heathcliff. Nelly tried to bring the child to the Grange, but Heathcliff would not allow it. Hindley died in debt to Heathcliff. So now the Earnshaw estate is finally his. Hareton, who should have been the heir, was now dependent upon Heathcliff, and made a servant within the house he should have been master of.
Nelly confessed that the twelve years after Catherine's death were the happiest in her life. She had little Cathy to take care of; she grew up to be a beautiful girl, her features a mix of Linton and Earnshaw. She was sweet and sensitive, but also spoiled, and could be bold. Her father loved her, and made sure she was educated and happy. She did not know about the Heights, as she was only allowed outside the park with her father, who desired to keep their neighbors a secret. Cathy was anxious to cross the hills, and visit Penistone Craggs, several miles away. But her father prohibited any such travels. He went away for a few weeks when Isabella was near dying, and during the three weeks he was away, Cathy took many solitary walks around the Grange. But one day she did not return for dinner, and Nelly had to go looking for her. A worker saw her jump her pony over the fence, leaving the property. Worried, Nelly sets out for Penistone Crags, thinking Cathy headed that way.
She tried the Heights, and found Cathy there. Luckily, Heathcliff was not at home. Cathy was happy inside, talking to Hareton. Nelly ordered her to leave, but Cathy didn't understand what all the fuss was about. She made Hareton angry when she spoke to him like a servant, then got angry herself when the maid told her that Hareton was her cousin. Shocked to hear that such an ignorant and crude boy could be her relation, she started to cry. Hareton gave her a puppy to make her feel better, but she still cried. After they left, Cathy told Nelly that she had been on her way to Penistone Craggs when one of Hareton's dogs attacked her own, and she was obliged to enter. Hareton treated her well, and told her about the Craggs and the Fairy cave, but he withdrew after she called him a servant. So angry at Hareton's mean reaction, she threatened to tell her father, but Nelly made her promise not to. Nelly told Cathy that her father disapproved of the Heights and its inhabitants, and that she should never go there again, to which Cathy reluctantly agreed.
A letter arrived from Edgar with news of Isabella's death. Cathy eagerly awaited her father's return, and that of her cousin. She and her father were very happy to see each other, while the delicate Linton slept in the carriage. Edgar warned his daughter to be careful of Linton, who would likely be unhappy for quite awhile. But the boy was tired and short of manners. Once inside, it was hard to make him comfortable; he was full of complaints. He had Edgar's physical attributes but not his good nature. Cathy indulged all his requests, and gave him much affection. But Edgar was afraid he would not be able to keep the boy, whose weak condition would make him a poor inhabitant at the Heights. As if to answer his fears, Joseph came to the door, demanding the boy for his master. Joseph wanted the boy immediately, but Edgar convinced him to wait and allow them to send the boy to the Heights tomorrow morning.
Before Cathy woke the next morning, Edgar got Linton ready to leave. He feared the influence of the Heights so, that he determined not to tell his daughter where Linton was going. Linton was surprised to be leaving, because his mother never told him he had a father. He was also worried and Edgar lied, telling him that his father is a businessman who could not live with his mother. Edgar wanted to stay with his uncle, but unfortunately this was impossible.
Nelly took Linton to the Heights, and they found the three men finishing breakfast. They made fun of Linton, who is effeminate and pale, the opposite of the men at the Heights. Heathcliff is annoyed to see the boy is so like his mother, and angered when he hears that Linton never heard about him. He tells Nelly that his son will enable him to get his revenge:
"my son is prospective owner of your place, and I should not wish him to die till I was certain of being his successor. Besides, he's mine, and I want the triumph of seeing my descendant fairly lord of their estates: my child hiring their children to till their fathers' land for wages. That is the sole consideration which can make me endure the whelp: I despise him for himself, and hate him for the memories he revives!" Chapter 20, pg. 191
Linton will be well raised, but for terrible reasons. Linton is already at odds in his new home, having sent back his dinner. Nelly hoped for the best, and returned to the Grange, with Linton crying out to her as she departed.
Cathy was very sad to learn her cousin was gone. After some time she stopped asking about him, and he faded in her mind. Nelly met the Height's housekeeper, and asked about Linton. Heathcliff hated him but treated him well, and Linton was constantly in bed with colds. He is very delicate, and careful of his health; the maid thinks he is selfish and complains too much.
Catherine was now sixteen, and on her birthday she asked Nelly to accompany her for a walk to look for some nesting birds. Cathy ran ahead, and was soon out of sight. She went to see the birds, and was grabbed by Heathcliff, for she was on his property. After realizing who the girl was, Heathcliff insisted they come back to Wuthering Heights to rest and see his son. Nelly told Catherine they should not, but Heathcliff would not take no for an answer. He plans on having the cousins fall in love and marry, so that her property will fall to him when Linton dies.
Catherine barely remembered her cousin, who was now almost sixteen. She greeted him warmly, then turned to her uncle, who shied away from her kisses. Catherine promised to talk to her father about the family rift, and to make her own repairs by visiting often. Heathcliff became annoyed when his son was not attentive enough to Catherine, and when Catherine wanted a walk, it was Hareton who wanted to escort her. Heathcliff told Nelly that he actually liked Hareton, and compared him to his son: "But there's this difference: one is gold put to the use of paving-stones, and the other is tin polished to ape a service of silver." Chapter 21, pg. 201 Hareton barely knows his letters and can be vulgar, and Catherine and Linton tease him.
They stay all afternoon, and Nelly cannot convince Catherine that future visits to Wuthering Heights are a bad idea. When she tells her father, he is forced to give her the history of Heathcliff's indiscretions. He tells her he fears what this evil man could do to her, which is why he kept her from her cousin. Catherine agreed to obey her father, but she is still upset; Linton expected to see her tomorrow. She asks if she can send him a note, but Nelly firmly answers no. Days later, Nelly learned that the two had started a secret correspondence, and Catherine was hiding his letters in the study. They were childish love letters, and Nelly threatened to show them to Mr. Linton if she did not stop. Catherine, who did not want to hurt her father, sadly agreed, and the letters were burned. Nelly sent a note to Wuthering Heights, saying that no more letters would be exchanged or accepted.
It was early September. Cathy and her father took frequent walks out of doors, and Mr. Linton caught a bad cold. He was forced to stay in bed that winter. Cathy missed her time with her father, and Nelly tried unsuccessfully to fill the gap. One day when they were out, Catherine was in terrible spirits. Afraid her father is going to die, she looked to Nelly for reassurance. Nelly does what she can, but warned Cathy not to disturb her father by visiting the Heights. Cathy, who says her father is the most important person, and the one she wishes to cause the least pain, agreed.
Topic Tracking: Nature 11
They reached a stone wall and Cathy climbed over to reach some high flowers. But she was not able to scale the wall to come over, and Nelly was obliged to go back for a key to open a nearby door. Before she could leave, Heathcliff rode up, on Cathy's side of the wall. She was a good girl, and told him she could not speak to him. But he said Linton was sick and it was her fault for being fickle and breaking his heart. He told her he would be away for a week, and that she should visit him then. Angrily, Nelly broke the lock, and escorted Cathy away, while Heathcliff tempted her to visit. It began to rain, and during the walk home Cathy was quiet. Nelly knew Heathcliff had made her feel guilty and concerned for not visiting. Once at home, Cathy cried and made Nelly promise to go with her to the Heights tomorrow.
That wet morning Nelly and Cathy went to Wuthering Heights. They did not find Heathcliff at home, true to his word, and they inquired about Linton. Joseph was alone, ignoring Linton's cries that he replenish the fire in his room. Cathy and Nelly followed the whiny voice. Linton was happy but held back, and Nelly heaped coal to the fire. Linton complained that she should have visited before, because all that letter writing made him tired. He does not like it here; his requests are often ignored, and his father thinks him a joke. Linton missed her, and his father blamed him for their broken correspondence. Cathy tells him she loves him very much, and wishes they were closer. But once Heathcliff returns, she cannot visit. She wishes Linton were her brother, but he says it would be better if he were her husband. Cathy thinks husbands and wives hate each other, and she could never love a man more than she loves her father. At the subject of unhappy marriages, the two quarrel about their families. Cathy tells him that his mother left his father, and he tells Cathy that her mother did not love her father, he loved Heathcliff instead. They fight like children, and Cathy pushes him, causing a terrible coughing fit in the weak boy. Linton complains, and Cathy apologizes. Such a push would not have hurt a normal person. He does his best to make her feel guilty, then urges her to leave. They are about to when they hear a scream. Nelly, exasperated at the invalid, sees that Linton has fallen to the floor. Cathy, still guilt-stricken, cares for him, singing him songs to calm him. Linton is manipulative, and Cathy's sweet soul falls for it. Cathy promised she would come tomorrow, even if she had to sneak over the high wall to get here. Nelly threatened to tell Mr. Linton, but she caught a cold from the wet walks and falls ill. Cathy took care of Nelly and her father during the day, and at night secretly visited Linton.
After being sick for three weeks, Nelly was finally able to leave her room, and she spent her first evening up in the library with Cathy. Cathy seemed very anxious to get Nelly to bed, and kept looking at her watch, finally retiring early to bed. On the third night, Nelly went to check on Cathy, and found she was gone. Nelly watched out the window and saw one of the stable boys leading Cathy and her pony. They acted quietly, and Cathy sneaked in a window. She was surprised to see Nelly in her room, who had guessed that Cathy was coming from the Heights.
Cathy had been faithfully visiting Linton by giving the stable boy books in exchange for his secret services. On her first visit Linton was cheerful, but they had one small quarrel, about the best way to spend a summer day. Linton wanted to relax in the moors; Catherine wanted to rock in a tree overlooking them:
"He wanted all to lie in an ecstasy of peace; I wanted all to sparkly, and dance in a glorious jubilee. I said his heaven would be only half alive; and he said mine would be drunk: I said I should fall asleep in his; and he said he could not breathe in mine..." Chapter 24, pg. 225
The two gave up fighting and started to play, but Linton got annoyed when Cathy kept beating him at all the games. The next evening, Cathy encountered Hareton, who wanted to show her what he had learned. He could read his name above the door, but he didn't yet know numbers, and Cathy teased him. Linton was ill, and Hareton yelled at them to get out of his sight. The two left the room, but Linton soon trembled with anger, demanding to be let back inside. All of his cries made him cough blood, and Cathy ran for help. Hareton felt bad, but denied it was his fault. Angry, Cathy hit him with her whip, deciding not to visit tomorrow.
Topic Tracking: Violence 16
On the third day she went back to Wuthering Heights. Linton was in a bad mood, and blamed Cathy for putting Hareton into such a rage. She left, but could not stay away for more than a day. Cathy suggested this should be her last visit, but Linton asked that it not be. He claimed that his ill health and his poor self-confidence kept him in this bad mood; he would love to be as sweet as she. Cathy believed and forgave him, although she thought sadly: "He'll never let his friends be at ease, and he'll never be at ease himself!" Chapter 24, pg. 233 Future visits were very unpleasant, due to Linton's selfish and complaining nature. Cathy was very patient with Linton, even defending him to his father.
At the end of her story, Cathy begged Nelly not to tell father. Mr. Linton overheard Nelly thinking the matter over aloud, and forbid any more visits. Her father told her that Linton could visit the Grange, but that her visits to the Heights were not to continue.
It was just last year that the previous events happened. Cathy did not disobey her father. Edgar wished that his nephew would visit or write, but Nelly told him he was most likely too sick to do so. Edgar was looking forward to death, except for the fear that after he was gone, Cathy would be mistreated. He wrote again to Linton, who answered with a written plea that the cousins might visit in a neutral spot. He even offered to meet with his uncle, so he could see what kind of man he was. But Mr. Linton was too ill to make such a trip. By his uncle's request, Linton continued to write, though his letters likely passed carefully under Heathcliff's eyes. By June, Cathy had convinced her father to let her meet Linton on the edge of the moors nearest the Grange. Nelly was to act as guardian. Cathy's father consented in part because he was near death, and a marriage with Linton would secure Cathy's future. Heathcliff, with his revenge near and his son in ever-poorer health, was to become even more cruel in his plans.
Cathy and Nelly embarked on their trip to Wuthering Heights in late summer. They were to ride and meet Linton at the crossroads between the properties, but he was not there. His messenger told them that Linton wanted them to come closer to the Heights. Nelly was annoyed, and even more so when they saw Linton a quarter mile from the Heights, and without a horse. Linton was weak and ill, much worse than the last time they saw him. He was indifferent to conversation, annoyed by laughter, and sullen. He did not seem to want them there, but when Cathy suggested they leave, he looked fearfully back at the Heights and begged her to stay a little longer. He asked her to come again next week, and not to tell Heathcliff about how tired and quiet he was. This was his father's idea, and Linton was very afraid of disappointing and angering him. Still he was quiet, and fell asleep. Cathy wished to go; she cannot understand why he wanted her to come. Linton stirred awake, and thought he heard his father coming. Cathy promised to return next week, then left. The visit made her sad and confused, but she concealed this from her father.
In the week between visits, Edgar's health deteriorated quickly. Cathy knew her father was dying, and she was at his side constantly. She did not go outside, and had to be reminded of her visit to Wuthering Heights. Nelly thought time out of doors would do her good. Edgar believed that his nephew was like himself in character, and would care for Cathy after he died. That afternoon, a sunny August day, Nelly and Cathy headed for the Heights. Linton was in the same spot as last week, and seemed afraid. Cathy, angry to be called away from her father's bedside, asked Linton why he had her come. Linton told her to blame his father for their meeting, and him for his cowardice. Cathy had no patience for his moods and wanted to leave. But Linton had a secret, which Cathy feared she was a part. Heathcliff appeared, curious to know if Edgar Linton was near death. He was afraid Linton would die first, and his plan would be spoiled. Heathcliff yelled at his son, embarrassed at his cowardice and constant weeping. The boy was terrified of his father, and eager to please him to avoid punishment. Heathcliff helped Linton to rise, and then asked Cathy to help him into the house. Forbidden to enter the Heights, she refused, and Nelly would not leave her alone. Linton, terrified, begged Cathy to bring him inside herself. The kind girl could not refuse.
Topic Tracking: Nature 12
Once inside, Heathcliff locked the door and insisted they stay for tea. Everyone else was gone from the Heights, and they were alone. Cathy demanded to leave, but Heathcliff would not give up the key. They fought over it, and he slapped her repeatedly on the head. When he stopped, he told her to go to Linton, for they would be married tomorrow; that was how her new father would treat her temper tantrums. Heathcliff left to release their horses, and while he was gone, they unsuccessfully looked for an escape. Linton was now only peevish instead of fearful; with the danger to himself over, he relaxed. He told her that they were to be married in the morning. Cathy, desperate, looked anew for an escape route, and Linton, now afraid she might leave, played upon her sympathies. They were immune to Cathy, who was frantic to see her beloved father. Heathcliff returned, and Cathy begged him to let her go, knowing her father will be worried. Heathcliff, happy to hear that his enemy will be so unhappy, firmly refused to let Cathy go. Cathy asked to be married now, so she can see her father, but Heathcliff would not agree.
Topic Tracking: Violence 17
They missed a chance at escape when some servants from the Grange rode up, looking for Cathy and Nelly. Heathcliff was sharp, and he got rid of them. When he returned, he locked the two women in a room, from which escape was impossible. Nelly felt terribly responsible for what had happened.
The next morning, Heathcliff took Cathy. Nelly remained imprisoned, and when Hareton came with her food, she could not convince him to free her. Five days passed.
On the fifth afternoon, Zillah came to the door. She knew nothing of the kidnapping; she heard that Nelly was lost in the marsh, and Heathcliff saved and cared for her. When Nelly repeated what happened, Hareton said she is crazy, but gave Zillah the key to let her out. Mr. Linton was not dead, and Nelly looked around the Heights for Cathy. She found Linton, laying on a couch and sucking on a piece of candy. He and Cathy were married, and he did not want his wife to leave the house. She was locked up, and he won't tell Nelly where she is. Heathcliff has poisoned his son into thinking that Cathy hates him and wants only his money, so Nelly tried her best to reverse this opinion. He said Cathy cries too much, and he can't stand to be with her. Heathcliff was with the doctor, anxious for news of Edgar. Linton heartlessly hoped his uncle will die soon:
"I'm glad, for I shall be master of the Grange after him--and Catherine always spoke of it as her house. It isn't hers! It's mine: papa says everything she has is mine. All her nice books are mine; she offered to give me them, and her pretty birds, and her pony Minny, if I would get the key of our room, and let her out; but I told her she had nothing to give, they were all, all mine." Chapter 28, pg. 257
The cruel boy even tried to take a photo of her father, but Cathy wouldn't give it up. Heathcliff hit her in the face and crushed the photo. Linton felt some remorse for her pain, but also felt like she got what she deserved. Still refusing to give Nelly the keys, she left and ran to the Grange. Edgar was still alive, barely. She told him an abridged version of their imprisonment at the Heights, and Edgar, fearing his daughter could be left penniless, sent for his lawyer. Nelly also sent some servants to fetch Catherine from the Heights; but they returned without her, because she was too ill to return. Nelly knew this was a lie, and was about to send them back when Cathy showed up at the door. She became so distressed that Linton agreed to release her. Nelly made her promise not to tell father about Linton's bad character, to spare him the pain. Cathy went in to see her father, and he died peacefully. The lawyer, crooked and in Heathcliff's pocket, did not arrive until after the death. Cathy barely made it herself, becoming so crazed that a fearful Linton finally let her out. She climbed out of the Heights by her mother's window.
Topic Tracking: Madness 9
The night after the funeral, Heathcliff came to the Grange to take Cathy. He scolded her for her disobedience, and encouraging Linton to do wrong. He did not punish Linton, because just the thought of his father is enough to terrify and sicken the boy, who cries out in his sleep. Cathy cannot remain at the Grange, because Heathcliff planned on renting it, and he wanted her at the Heights to work. Cathy stood up to him, and said that despite his best efforts, she and Linton do not hate each other. But Cathy's departure made Linton spiteful and wishing for revenge against her. Cathy, already acting like a resident of the Heights, condemned her uncle and took pleasure in his evil and revolting state. Nelly begged Heathcliff for Zillah's place at the Heights, but he would not let her come.
Heathcliff, with a triumphant smile, told Nelly about his burial plans. When the grave-digger was digging Linton's grave, Heathcliff got him to open Catherine's. She still looked beautiful, and he bribed the man to knock out the side of their coffins, so they could lie together forever. Nelly was disgusted, but Heathcliff told her that is all that will allow him to be at peace after he dies. He confessed that he went crazy after she died, and he partly dug up her grave, so desperate was he to be with her. He stopped when he felt a warm breath, and he felt a sudden relief. He told Nelly that Catherine has haunted him all these years. So crazed with grief, he expected to see her everywhere; he felt her presence often, especially at night.
Topic Tracking: Supernatural 8
Topic Tracking: Nature 13
After he quieted, Heathcliff took down a portrait of his Catherine from above the mantle. He asked Nelly to send it over tomorrow. Then he took Cathy away, telling Nelly not to visit her at Wuthering Heights.
Nelly had tried to visit Wuthering Heights once, but Joseph would not let her see Cathy. Only the occasional word from Zillah told her anything. Zillah doesn't like Cathy; she thinks the girl is arrogant. When Cathy came to the Heights, she shut herself up with Linton, asking the next morning for the doctor. But Heathcliff refused, and Zillah, tired of the whiny boy, would not help. Zillah saw lots of suffering, but did not make it her business to help. One night Cathy came yelling that Linton was dying. When Heathcliff finally came to the bed, his son was dead. No loss to him, he taunted Cathy with the loss. The grieving girl replied: "You have left me so long to struggle against death, alone, that I feel and see only death! I feel like death!" Chapter 30, pg. 268-269 After his death Cathy stayed upstairs alone for two weeks. Her only visitor was Zillah. Once Heathcliff came up to show her that Linton had willed all his (and her) property to himself.
Cathy did not come down until one day when Heathcliff was away. Joseph was at church, and Zillah stayed behind with Cathy and Hareton. Hareton had a crush on Cathy, and Zillah offered to help clean him up before Cathy came down. Cathy was somber and cold. She allowed Hareton to help her reach some books, and to look at some of them with her. But he was so enchanted, that he made the mistake of stroking her hair, which greatly upset her. Apologetic and crushed, Hareton asked Zillah to ask Cathy to read to them. Zillah told Cathy Hareton wanted to hear her read, but Cathy rejected what she felt to be hypocritical interest. Too little too late, she felt. Hareton asked her what he could have done, and they quarreled until he finally went outside. Because of the cold, Cathy was often obliged to sit downstairs with them. Hareton became more talkative, but Zillah still disliked Cathy, who was snappish and unfriendly.
Nelly ends her story here. Mr. Lockwood is better, and he plans to ride over to the Heights and inform Heathcliff that he will be leaving the Grange, and that when his lease runs out in October, he can find another tenant.
The next day Mr. Lockwood went to Wuthering Heights. Heathcliff was not at home, but Hareton let him wait inside. Catherine was there, and treated Mr. Lockwood with the same cold indifference that she had before. Mr. Lockwood was carrying a letter from Mrs. Dean, and he discreetly dropped it in Catherine's lap. But Hareton noticed the exchange, and took the letter to show Heathcliff. When Catherine began to cry, her cousin relented and threw the letter at her. Cathy reads the letter, but regrets she cannot answer it. She has no paper and no books. Heathcliff destroyed her library, but Hareton hid a few books in his room. Cathy makes fun of her ignorant cousin, and his attempts at learning. She hates having her books read by such a dunce. Hareton left the room and returned with the books, offering them to her. At first refusing them, Cathy then began to read from one, imitating her cousin. Finally having lost his patience, Hareton hit her. Then he threw the books into the fire, though he regretted the act. He really wants to learn, mostly because of Cathy, and he is very hurt by Cathy's insults.
Topic Tracking: Violence 18
Heathcliff returns then, and everyone but Mr. Lockwood leaves the room. When Mr. Lockwood tells Heathcliff he does not want the Grange for more than a year, Heathcliff thinks he is trying to cheat him. He quickly calms down, and he, Hareton, and Mr. Lockwood have a quiet and uncomfortable dinner. Mr. Lockwood leaves early; he is interested in Catherine, but depressed by the Heights. He thinks about Nelly's hope that he and Cathy might become attached, so she could leave that terrible place.
It is September of 1802. Mr. Lockwood was passing near Gimmerton on his way to a friend's house. Impulsively, he decided to visit the Grange. When he gets there he asks for Nelly, but she is at the Heights. The servants are frantic to have the master show up without calling, and while a room is being prepared, he walks to Wuthering Heights. When he arrives, the gate is unlocked, and there are sweet flowers growing along the house. Mr. Lockwood could see a girl and boy inside, the girl giving him a reading lesson. The boy was handsome and well dressed, and the beautiful girl was Catherine. Hareton received many kisses in return for his lesson, and Mr. Lockwood slunk into the house when the lovers left the house for a walk. Inside he found Nelly singing, and Joseph cursing her for it. She is happy and surprised to see him. He tells her he came to settle the rent with Heathcliff, but Nelly tells him that he died three months ago, and she continues her story.
Two weeks after Mr. Lockwood left, Nelly was ordered to Wuthering Heights. Heathcliff wanted Nelly to keep Cathy out of his sight. Nelly brought her books, and spent time with her, but Catherine was restless. She complained of being kept within the garden's bounds, and she quarreled often with Joseph. She also harassed Hareton, calling him ignorant and shallow. But she seemed to regret that he discontinued his lessons, and she tried to give him a book. He would not take it, and none of her other schemes could make him pick up a book. Hareton injured himself hunting, and therefore had to stay inside all day with Cathy and Nelly. She told Hareton that she was glad that he is her cousin, but he gave only a gruff reply. She took his pipe from him, apologized for her previous harsh words, and urged Hareton to pay attention to her. He got angry, and was confused when Cathy said that he hated her. He always took her side against Heathcliff, at great risk. She tried again to make friends, and when he would not shake her hand, she kissed him. Hareton hid his face.
Cathy decided to try and give Hareton a book again, and he reluctantly accepted it. He feared a friendship was doomed, because of how ashamed she is of him. But he gave in nonetheless, and the two pore over his new book. When Joseph returned, he was angry to see Hareton, who is his favorite, so close with a woman he despised. Everyone went to bed without any trouble, and Cathy was quite happy. As the days went by, the two became closer, though not without quarrel. Nelly expected they would get married.
Nelly tells Mr. Lockwood how during Hareton's recovery, he and Cathy became closer. The girl was able to convince him to cut down a patch of berry bushes, so that she could put in some plants from the Grange in their place. The plants belonged to Joseph, but the smitten Hareton said he would take the blame for their removal. At dinner, Cathy sat closer to Hareton. Despite the likelihood of their friendship annoying Heathcliff, Cathy quietly teased Hareton until he let out a laugh. Heathcliff was angry, and surprised when Hareton admitted it was he who laughed. Before the meal ended, Joseph came in, furious about his uprooted plants. He said he would leave, because he cannot stand what Cathy has done to the family. Heathcliff yelled at Hareton, who said that he had every right to dig up the yard, since Heathcliff stole all his land. But when Heathcliff demanded Cathy be removed from his sight, Hareton wisely tried to make his confrontational cousin leave. She finally agreed, touched by his concern for her welfare. But Heathcliff grabbed her, and was about to hurt her, when he unexpectedly let her go. He sent them all away, wanting to be alone.
Topic Tracking: Nature 14
Topic Tracking: Violence 19
Once alone, Hareton asked Cathy not to insult Heathcliff. Despite his flaws, Hareton cared for him, like a father. After this quarrel ended, the two were rarely apart; and Hareton was much changed and improved with Cathy's influence. Heathcliff came upon the two reading together, and their resemblance to his love with Catherine Earnshaw confused and quieted him. With these two in love, Heathcliff could hurt them both and finish his revenge against their parents. But he told Nelly: "I have lost the faculty of enjoying their destruction, and I am too idle to destroy for nothing." Chapter 33, pg. 295 He felt that a change was coming, as he slowly lost interest in earthly matters. Despite the memories each child brought up, he cannot get rid of them. They, and everything, reminded him of Catherine; and Hareton's previous degradation recalled his own youth. He was not ill, nor in body close to death. But his continual torment, his constant wishing to be with the dead, made him certain he could not stand living much longer. After this outburst he became quieter, talking only to himself, while Nelly anxiously waited to see how this change would play out.
For days Heathcliff stayed away, and did not eat meals with the family. At night, he went outside, but Nelly did not know what he did. It was warm April weather, and Cathy and Nelly sat outside while Hareton planted Cathy's garden. Cathy came back from the house, and told them she had just seen an excited, even wild-looking Heathcliff. He had been out walking all night, and Nelly decided to go inside and check on him. At dinner he refused his food, choosing instead to go outside. Hareton went to see what was the matter, but there seemed to be nothing, and Heathcliff looked happy, for a change. He returned later, pale and with a strange smile on his lips, trembling with excitement. He again refused food, and asked Nelly to keep everyone away from him. When Nelly asks what was the matter, he answers: "Last night, I was on the threshold of hell. To-day, I am within sight of my heaven. I have my eyes on it: hardly three feet to sever me!" Chapter 34, pg. 300
That evening Nelly thought she should check on him and bring him his supper. He was leaning on the open window, staring outside. When Nelly moved to close the windows, she saw Heathcliff's frightful face. Terrified, she ran for Joseph, and made him attend the master. Nelly gave in to wild fears that Heathcliff was some kind of ghost or monster.
Topic Tracking: Supernatural 9
The next morning Heathcliff seemed better, but still in a strange agitated state. He refused to eat, and scared Nelly with his fixation on an unseen object or person. Nelly left him alone, and again he did not eat, and he went walking late at night. Nelly heard him come home, speaking Catherine's name as though she was present. He soon came into the kitchen, asking Nelly to start him a fire. He asked her to send for a lawyer tomorrow, so he could make out his will. He believed himself close to death, and he regretted that nothing had been done. Nelly suggested he turn to God, but Heathcliff's only concern was that he be buried by his Catherine.
Topic Tracking: Supernatural 10
Topic Tracking: Madness 10
The next day, Heathcliff retreated to his room, and did not come out all night, though his moaning could be heard throughout the house. Nelly sent for the doctor, but Heathcliff would not let anyone in to see him.
The next evening, Nelly noticed that Heathcliff's window was open. It was raining, and Nelly went inside to close it. Heathcliff was lying on his back, and he met Nelly with a terrible smile! His eyes were wide and vivid, but he was dead; a terrified Nelly called for Joseph. But it was only the slighted Hareton who really mourned for Heathcliff.
Topic Tracking: Supernatural 11
The doctor could not explain what he died of. They buried Heathcliff as he wished, but many of the townspeople do not believe he rests below ground. Many believe they have seen his ghost, and a woman's too. Nelly even came upon a shepherd boy who claimed that Heathcliff and a woman had blocked his way on the moors. Nelly tells Mr. Lockwood that Hareton and Cathy will be moving to the Grange, after their New Year's marriage. Only Joseph will remain at Wuthering Heights. Mr. Lockwood asks if this will leave more room for the ghosts, but Nelly tells him she does not believe in ghosts. At that moment, Cathy and Hareton return, and a jealous Mr. Lockwood grumbles that lovers are not afraid of anything. Desiring to avoid them, Mr. Lockwood says good-by to Nelly and runs out. On his way to the Grange, Mr. Lockwood stops by the graveyard. The chapel is in disrepair, and between it and the moor lie the three headstones: Catherine's, Edgar's, and Heathcliff's. They are each in different stages of being covered up by the moor. With the wind blowing through the grass, and the sky calm, Mr. Lockwood wonders how anyone could not be at peace in the earth.
Topic Tracking: Supernatural 12