The Republic Objects/Places
City: In order to discover true justice in a person, Socrates builds an imaginary city and determines what justice is there. This is because it is easier to identify and explain things on a large scale than a small one. Thus, he bases the book on the city.
Temperance: Defined as control over certain desires and pleasures, it is another one of the excellences to be found in both the soul and the city. Temperance exists in all people in the city, and its existence is proven by the harmony.
Philosophers: People who love knowledge. Socrates also says that nobody will be happy until either philosophers become kings or kings become philosophers. Also, true philosophers will realize that there is more than human life to be considered.
Cave: Socrates uses the story of the cave to show how people often believe that something is the truth when it is not, and also to show how difficult it is for people to admit that what they have believed is not the truth, but that something else is.
Truth: The search for the truth, and for what is, leads to the definition of the good, which in turn leads to the definition of justice. Socrates and the others conclude that people who see the truth are better than those who don't, and that it is the soul that sees the truth.
Timocracy/Timarchy: This arises from the aristocrac, and occurs when the aristocracy deteriorates. It has many features similar to aristocracy and many different ones. This is considered the second best method of rule, and the timocractic man is considered the second best and just.
Democracy: This stems from oligarchy, when people want to get as rich as possible. Although it shares some features with oligarchy, it is very different. It is considered one of the worst methods of rule, and the democratic man is considered rather unjust.
Desires: There are two types of desires: necessary and unnecessary. It is the lack of control over unnecessary desires which make people less just. Desires can be wild, terrible and lawless, and lead people to do unjust things.
Guardians: Protectors of the city and the exhibition of courage in the city. The best guardians will become rulers, alternating their rule. Their upbringing is very rigid, and they are considered to be among the best people in the city.