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Edward Morgan Forster was born on January 1, 1879 in London. Forster's father, an architect, died a year later in 1880 from consumption. He was 33 years old. As a result of this death, Forster was raised in a female-dominated household. He and his mother, Alice Whichelo, were so close that he lived with her until her death in 1945. He was also raised in part by his maternal grandmother and his paternal great aunt, Marianne Thornton, a wealthy woman who showered her nephew with gifts. Forster's novels, including A Passage to India, feature positive portrayals of women as a result of his childhood influences.
Forster was educated at the elite Tonbridge School in Kent. He felt stifled in this educational atmosphere. At this school, which appeared as Sawston in his other novels, Where Angels Fear to Tread and The Longest Journey, he devised the theme of the "undeveloped heart." He blamed the public school system for many of the faults of the British middle class. While the development of mind and body were encouraged at school, no one paid attention to the development of the heart and emotions. His character, Ronny Heaslop, is a true product of Britain's public school system. He is a source of officialism without emotion.
In 1897, Forster began his studies at King's College, Cambridge, where he felt a sense of intellectual liberation. After Cambridge, Forster decided to pursue a life of writing. Following the end of his studies, Forster traveled in the Mediterranean for much of 1901 and 1902. He discovered Europe beyond the familiar conventions of England. Forster found Greek paganism and the Italian Renaissance particularly interesting.
In 1903, his friends from Cambridge founded a liberal newspaper called The Independent Review, which combated aggressive imperialism and promoted left wing politics. Forster began to contribute to this publication and his association with this politically elite group influenced his writing.
Forster's early works reflect the trend of turn-of-the-century British writers to diverge from Victorianism. His writing was more colloquial and less formal. Forster became adept at portraying the lives of the middle class. He also became interested in observing the insular lives of the English middle class abroad.
In 1912, Forster made the first of his two trips to India. His trip lasted six months and provided him the inspiration for writing A Passage to India. Orientalism inspired him in his adulthood the way Italian renaissance and Greek paganism inspired him as a youth. In India, he visited a Muslim friend whom he met in England as well as a friend from Cambridge. The Muslim friend was the inspiration for the character Dr. Aziz. During this visit, he also traveled to Bankipore in the Bengal region (the basis of Chandrapore that is featured in the book) and the nearby Barabar caves. It was in these six months that Forster wrote the first seven chapters of Passage that led up to the picnic outing at the Marabar caves.
During the years of World War I (from late 1915 to early 1919) Forster spent most of his time in Alexandria, Egypt as a search officer for the Red Cross. In 1921, Forster revisited India and served for six months as the private secretary to the maharajah of Dewas Senior. This served as his inspiration for the final half of the novel. Passage was the last piece of fiction that Forster wrote. Afterwards, Forster published a documentary account of his trip to India and guides to Alexandria. Queen Elizabeth II awarded Forster with membership in the Order of Companions of Honour in 1953, and on January 1, 1969 (his ninetieth birthday), he received the Order of Merit. He suffered a series of strokes toward the end of his life. He died on June 7, 1970 in Coventry.
Forster, E.M. A Passage to India. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., 1924.
Scott-Kilvert, Ian. British Writers, vol.VI. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1983.
Stone, Wilfred. The Cave and the Mountain. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1966.
Trilling, Lionel. E.M. Forster. New York: New Directions, 1943.
We are introduced to Chandrapore, a city that is part of the British Raj. It is separated into three parts: Mosque, Caves, and Temple.
Aziz is a poor doctor who has lived dutifully under British command, but has grown more frustrated with their treatment of him and his fellow Indians. He and his friends discuss the English and complain that they have changed in attitude over the years and have become more intolerant and cold. The British officials at the civil station in Chandrapore run a club that forbids Indians from attending and try to avoid any intimate friendships or relations with the natives. Mrs. Moore and Adela Quested come over from England to visit Ronny Heaslop, Mrs. Moore's son and Adela's betrothed. One night, Mrs. Moore encounters Dr. Aziz in a Mosque in the moonlight. They are at first startled by each other, but instantly become friends. Mrs. Moore and Adela are more liberal than Ronny and wish to see the "real India" and befriend Indians. Mr. Fielding, the Principal of the Government College, invites Adela and Mrs. Moore to his home for tea. He also invites Dr. Aziz, who he recently met and liked instantly, and his mystical Hindu colleague Professor Godbole. Fielding's tea party is very friendly and comfortable. Aziz feels so at ease, that he invites the women on an excursion to the caves at Marabar.
Aziz gets to the train station especially early so nothing will go wrong with the excursion. Mrs. Moore and Adela arrive on time, but Fielding and Godbole have not yet arrived. Aziz is nervous because he does not want to be left alone with the women, anticipating that trouble will arise. Ronny also disapproves of the women being left alone. He sends over a servant to follow them to make sure they are not left alone with Dr. Aziz. Fielding and Godbole arrive too late. They miss the train and Aziz is left to travel alone with Mrs. Moore and Adela. They put him at ease and assure him they are in good hands. At the caves, the weather is hot. The three go in and out of the caves, which all look similar. Within the caves is the haunting sound of an echo. While Mrs. Moore is in the cave, which is completely dark, she feels something touch her. But she is haunted by the sound of the echo, which takes over her thoughts. She decides to rest after her experience and let Adela and Aziz continue to explore other caves.
Adela becomes preoccupied with her engagement to Ronny and realizes she does not love him. Before she enters the cave, she asks Aziz about his wife and love. Adela and Aziz become separated eventually and Aziz can not find Adela. Aziz hears a car and later assumes that Miss Derek, Adela's friend, picked up Adela. Fielding joins Aziz and Mrs. Moore and they board the train back to Chandrapore. When the train pulls into the station, Aziz is arrested for charges that are unknown to him. Fielding publicly vows to defend Aziz and alienates himself from his countrymen. Aziz is charged with making improper advances to Adela in the caves. Fielding believes that Adela was hallucinating.
As the trial approaches, Mrs. Moore becomes more aloof. Adela seeks her support, but Mrs. Moore wants nothing to do with her or anyone else. Adela is haunted with the echoes from the caves, and when she realizes Aziz's innocence, the echoes go away. She tells Ronny about her doubts of Aziz's guilt and Mrs. Moore backs them up, but Ronny encourages her to go on with the trial and continue to press charges. Mrs. Moore, with the support and encouragement of her son, leaves for Britain before the trial. She dies en route, unable to endure the heat and travel conditions. At the trial, Adela continues to hear echoes. The courtroom becomes charged with emotion. Indians in the courthouse begin to call for Mrs. Moore to clear the name of Aziz. When Adela is called to the witness box, Mr. McBryde presses her until finally she admits that she is not sure if Aziz is really guilty. The judge drops the charges and all of the Indians in Chandrapore celebrate Aziz's victory. Adela walks the streets in a daze and is intercepted by Fielding. He invites her to his office for her safety.
Aziz becomes jealous while Adela and Fielding spend time together. Fielding pities her since her engagement has been broken and since she put her life on the line to tell the truth. He asks Aziz not to collect money from Adela for damages. Rumors begin to spread that he and Adela are having an affair. Fielding denies the rumor, but in the back of his mind, Aziz believes the rumor to be true and thinks Fielding will marry Adela for her money. After the trial, Aziz wants nothing to do with the British and begins to write poetry about the motherland and the nation. He decides to move out of the Raj to a free Indian state. Fielding and Adela return to England.
Two years have passed and Aziz and Godbole now live in Mau, an independent Hindu state. Godbole is the Minister of Education and Aziz has a clinic in town. The town is celebrating the arrival of a new God and is filled with singing and dancing in the streets. Godbole receives a note that Fielding and his new wife will be paying a visit. He tells Aziz who refuses to see them. Aziz has ignored all of Fielding's letters and postcards over the years and assumed that he has married Adela in London. Aziz runs into Fielding and his new brother-in-law (Ralph) by accident, when he goes out to attend to Ralph's bee sting.
Aziz treats Fielding coldly. Fielding asks why Aziz never returned his letters. Finally, Aziz realizes that Fielding did not marry Adela, but Mrs. Moore's daughter, Stella. Adela introduced them in London. Aziz continues to behave coldly and says he wants nothing to do with the British. Later on, Aziz checks up on Ralph's bee sting and continues to be cold, but is finally overcome by a spiritual epiphany brought on by the celebrations in town. He asks Ralph if he knows when a stranger becomes a friend and he answers yes. This was what his mother said to Aziz in the Mosque when they met. Finally, Aziz and Fielding become friends again. Aziz gives Fielding a letter to deliver to Adela forgiving her for her charges against him. He has left the past behind him. As Fielding and Aziz say their final good-byes, their horses pull them away from each other and they know they will never see each other again.
Dr. Aziz: Main character of the novel. Aziz is a young Muslim/Indian doctor who lives very simply in a modest bungalow in Chandrapore in order to support his three children. He is proud, charming, and emotional. He is a true 'Oriental', more concerned with feelings than intellect. His friendships with Fielding and Mrs. Moore show that he can bridge the gap between East and West. However, his experience in the trial proves that Indians and English can not be true friends in India under British rule.
Mrs. Moore: Mrs. Moore comes to India to visit her son and bring over Adela. Mrs. Moore personifies the religious theme of the novel. She is the symbol of spirit and universal love. Mrs. Moore came over to India as a good Christian, but her experience in India draws her to the spiritual world rather than the traditionally religious one. After her death, her character becomes even more important, especially in the trial. She is capable of loving and of being loved. Though they know each other for only a short time, Mrs. Moore and Aziz deeply love and respect each other.
Adela Quested: Comes to India to visit Ronny, the man she thinks she will marry, to see how he behaves at work. She wants to see the 'real India' for purely intellectual reasons. Unlike Aziz and Mrs. Moore, Adela is pure intellect. She does not feel things, but thinks them. She is plain and a prig, but generally decent. She is neither likable nor detestable.
Cyril Fielding: The schoolmaster of the Government College. He is a middle-aged man who is too set in his ways to be influenced by the other Anglo-Indians. He is liberal, strong, and intelligent. Like Adela, he is ruled more by intellect than love or emotion. He is a loyal friend, however, sticking by Aziz during the trial despite their racial differences and pressure from the British.
Hamidullah: One of Aziz’s best friends. He is a lawyer who was educated in Cambridge when relations between Indians and British were still good. He is disillusioned about the current state of relations between the British and Indians.
Mahmoud Ali: A young lawyer who has strong anti-British, pro-nationalist feelings. He storms out of the courtroom after his defense of Aziz, caught up in a nationalist fervor.
Ronny Heaslop: Adela’s fiancee and Mrs. Moore’s son. He is the City Magistrate of Chandrapore. He and his mother disagree about the way Indians are treated. He is a victim of the British school system and is steeped in unemotional officialism. Ronny believes his mother’s religious and spiritual beliefs are a sign of senility.
Mr. and Mrs. Turton: The Collector of Chandrapore and his wife. Mr. Turton has been in India for more than 20 years and feels he knows the ways of the country and its people. He does not treat the Indians with fairness and believes British and Indians should never mix socially. His wife treats Indians very cruelly.
Mr. and Mrs. Callendar: The Inspector and his wife. Mr. Callendar is one of the main officials in Chandrapore.
Nawab Bahadur: A well-respected man. He is the 'show' Indian for the British and the only one they treat with respect. His fellow Indians also respects him. However, his real name is his real name is Mr. Zulfiqar (which he eventually changes his name back to). The name Nawab Bahadur is the title given to Mr. Zulfiqar by the British Indians, due to his loyalty towards them.
Mr. and Mrs. Bhattacharya: An Indian couple that Adela and Mrs. Moore meet. They invite Adela and Mrs. Moore to their home and never send a carriage. This makes Adela and Mrs. Moore question Indian manners.
Dr. Lal: A doctor and relative of the Bhattacharyas who is allied with Major Callendar. He is sent over as a spy to check on Aziz’s illness. He befriends Aziz at the end of his trial.
Professor Godbole: The assistant of Fielding at government college and later the Minister of Education at Mau. He is quiet and contemplative. He is a very spiritual man and his Hindu song haunts Mrs. Moore.
Miss Derek: A British employee of the maharajah. She is Adela’s friend and picks her up in her car after Adela’s incident at the caves.
Nureddin: The handsome grandson of Nawab Bahadur.
Mr. and Mrs. McBryde: Mr. McBryde prosecutes the case against Aziz. His wife takes care of Adela before the trial.
Mr. Das: The Indian judge of Aziz’s trial. He does a respectable job of taking control during the trial.
Ralph Moore: Mrs. Moore’s clumsy, but sincere son.
Stella Moore: Mrs. Moore’s daughter who marries Fielding. She and her brother are very different than their half brother Ronny. Their treatment of Indians is similar to their mother’s.
Chandrapore: The city in India where the novel takes place. It is a part of British India. In the center of the town is the British club, which excludes Indians from membership.
Marabar Caves: The caves in the Marabar Hills, which Aziz promises to show Mrs. Moore and Adela. The picnic at the caves leads to the infamous incident in which Adela accuses Aziz of improprieties. 'Caves' is the title of the second part of the novel and represent the conflict between British and Indians.
Mosque: Mrs. Moore and Aziz meet at the Mosque and start their friendship. While the caves represent disunion between British and India, the Mosque (the title of the first part of the novel) represents a union.
Bridge Party: Turton’s attempt to bring together British and Indians in a social setting. The party is superficial and unsuccessful.
Wife’s Photograph: Showing Fielding the photograph of his dead wife is Aziz’s way of lifting the purdah [separation of women and men]. By doing this he tries to promote a brotherhood between them.
Ghost: Part of the mysticism of India. Mrs. Moore believes she sees one, as she becomes more spiritually inclined. Aziz believes that believing in ghosts is a defect of Indians and sees it as backwards.
Echoes: The haunting sounds that are heard in the caves and afterwards, heard by Adela and Mrs. Moore. The echoes remain in Adela’s head after the picnic and only when she exonerates Aziz do they go away. For Mrs. Moore, the ‘boum’ sound of the echoes replace her memory of religious verses and prayers.
Purdah: The tradition Indian separation and veiling of women. It is forbidden for a man to see another man's wife's face, unless they are brothers. Dr. Aziz first goes against purdah when he shows Fielding a photograph of his deceased wife. He then calls Fielding his brother, and Fielding asks if purdah will be removed when all men are brothers. Later on, Dr. Aziz writes that the institution of purdah stands in the way of India's freedom.
Quote 1: "So abased, so monotonous is everything that meets the eye, that when the Ganges comes down it might be expected to wash the excrescence back into the soil. Houses do fall, people are drowned and left rotting, but the general outline of the town persists, welling here, shrinking there, like some low but indestructible form of life." Chapter 1, pg. 2
Quote 2: "On the second rise is laid out the little civil station, and viewed hence Chandrapore appears to be a totally different place. It is a city of gardens. It is no city, but a forest sparsely scattered with huts. It is a tropical pleasaunce washed by a noble river." Chapter 1, pg. 4
Quote 3: "They all become exactly the same, not worse, not better. I give any Englishman two years, be he Turton or Burton. It is only the difference of a letter. And I give any English woman six months. All are exactly alike." Chapter 2, pg. 7
Quote 4: "He has found out our dinner hour, that's all, and chooses to interrupt us every time, in order to show his power." Chapter 2, pg. 12
Quote 5: "A Mosque by winning his approval let loose his imagination. The temple of another creed, Hindu, Christian, or Greek, would have bored him and failed to awaken his sense of beauty. Here was Islam, his own country, more than a Faith, more than a battle cry, more, much more...Islam an attitude towards life both exquisite and durable, where his body and his thoughts found their home." Chapter 2, pg. 16
Quote 6: "That makes no difference. God is here." Chapter 2, pg. 16
Quote 7: "As he strolled down hill beneath the lovely moon, and again saw the lovely mosque, he seemed to own the land as much as anyone who owned it. What did it matter if a few flabby Hindus had preceded him there, and a few chilly English succeeded." Chapter 2, pg. 22
Quote 8: "I want to see the real India." Chapter 3, pg. 22
Quote 9: "Come on, India's not as bad as all that. Other side of the earth, if you like, but we stick to the same old moon." Chapter 3, pg. 23
Quote 10: "Adventures do occur, but not punctually." Chapter 3, pg. 22
Quote 11: "In England the moon had seemed dead and alien; here she was caught in the shawl of night together with earth and all other stars. A sudden sense of unity, of kinship with the heavenly bodies, passed into the old woman and out, like water through a tank, leaving a strange freshness behind." Chapter 3, pg. 28
Quote 12: "It is easy to sympathize at a distance. I value more the kind word that is spoken close to my ear." Chapter 4, pg. 35
Quote 13: "No, no, this is going to far. We must exclude someone from our gathering, or we shall be left with nothing." Chapter 4, pg. 38
Quote 14: "No, it was not picturesque; the East, abandoning its secular magnificence, was descending into a valley whose farther side no man can see." Chapter 5, pg. 39
Quote 15: "Because India is part of the earth. And God has put us on the earth in order to be pleasant to each other. God is love." Chapter 5, pg. 53
Quote 16: "[H]e did not realize that 'white' has no more to do with a colour than 'God save the King' with a god, and that it is the height of impropriety to consider what it does connote." Chapter 7, pg. 65
Quote 17: "A mystery is only a high sounding term for a muddle. No advantage in stirring it up, in either case. Aziz and I know well that India is a muddle." Chapter 7, pg. 73
Quote 18: "Aziz was exquisitely dressed, from tie-pin to spats, but he had forgotten his back-collar stud, and there you have the Indian all over; inattention to detail, the fundamental slackness that reveals the race." Chapter 8, pg. 87
Quote 19: "Her hand touched his, owing to a jolt, and one of the thrills so frequent in the animal kingdom passed between them, and announced that their difficulties were only a lovers' quarrel." Chapter 8, pg. 95
Quote 20: "And when the whole world behaves as such, there will be no more purdah?" Chapter 11, pg. 126
Quote 21: "But he [Aziz] himself was rooted in society and Islam. He belonged to a tradition, which bound him, and he had brought children into the world, the society of the future. Though he lived so vaguely in this flimsy bungalow, nevertheless he was placed, placed." Chapter 11, pg. 131
Quote 22: "All the love he felt for her at the Mosque welled up again, the fresher for forgetfulness." Chapter 13, pg. 145
Quote 23: "You keep your religion, I mine. That is best. Nothing embraces the whole of India, nothing, nothing and that was Akbar's mistake." Chapter 14, pg. 160
Quote 24: "But suddenly, at the edge of her mind, Religion appeared, poor little talkative Christianity, and she knew that all its divine words from 'Let there be light' to 'It is finished' only amounted to 'boum.'" Chapter 14, pg. 166
Quote 25: "'I have had twenty five years experience of this country'--and twenty five years seemed to fill the waiting room with their staleness and ungeneroisity--'and during those twenty five years, I have never known anything but disaster result when English people and Indians attempt to be intimate socially.'" Chapter 17, pg. 182
Quote 26: "They are not to blame, they have not a dog's chance--we should be like them if we settled here." Chapter 18, pg. 184
Quote 27: "They had started speaking of women and children, that phrase that exempts the male from sanity when it has been repeated a few times." Chapter 20, pg. 203
Quote 28: "But every humane act in the East is tainted with officialism, and while honoring him they condemned Aziz and India." Chapter 20, pg. 208
Quote 29: "The sound had spouted after her when she escaped, and was going on still like a river that gradually floods the plain. Only Mrs. Moore could drive it back to its source and seal the broken reservoir. Evil was loose...she could hear it entering the lives of others." Chapter 22, pg. 215
Quote 30: "Her Christian tenderness had gone, or had developed into hardness, a just irritation against the human race; she had taken no interest at the arrest, asked scarcely any questions, and had refused to leave her bed on one awful last night of Mohurram, when an attack was expected on the bungalow." Chapter 22, pg. 221
Quote 31: "As soon as she landed in India, it seemed to her good, and when she saw the water flowing through the mosque tank, or the Ganges, or the moon caught in the shawl of night with all the other stars, it seemed a beautiful goal and an easy one." Chapter 23, pg. 231
Quote 32: "by what right did they claim so much importance in the world and assume the title of civilization?" Chapter 24, pg. 242
Quote 33: "It was revolting to him [Ronny] to hear his mother travestied into Esmiss Esmoor, a Hindu goddess." Chapter 24, pg. 250
Quote 34: "Ronny's religion was of the sterilized Public School brand, which never goes bad, even in the tropics. Wherever he entered, mosque, cave or temple, he retained the spiritual outlook of the fifth form, and condemned as 'weakening' any attempt to understand them." Chapter 28, pg. 286
Quote 35: "The poem for Mr. Bhattacharya never got written, but it had an effect. It led him towards the vague and bulky figure of a mother-land. He was without natural affection for the land of his birth, but the Marabar Hills drove him to it. Half closing his eyes, he attempted to love India." Chapter 30, pg. 298
Quote 36: "Suspicion in the Oriental is a sort of malignant tumor, a mental malady, that makes him self-conscious and unfriendly suddenly; he trusts and mistrusts at the same time in a way the Westerner can not comprehend. It is his demon, as the Westerner's is hypocrisy." Chapter 32, pg. 311
Quote 37: "Thus Godbole, though she was not important to him, remembered an old woman he had met in Chandrapore days. Chance brought her into his mind while it was in this heated state, he did not select her, she happened to occur among the throng of soliciting images, a tiny splinter, and he impelled her by his spiritual force to that place where completeness can be found." Chapter33, pg. 321
Quote 38: "My heart is for my own people henceforward." Chapter 35, pg. 339
Quote 39: "Then you are an Oriental." Chapter 36, pg. 349
Quote 40: "But the horses didn't want it-they swerved apart; the earth didn't want it, sending up rocks through which riders must pass single file; the temples, the tank, the jail, the palace, the birds, the carrion, the Guest House, that came into view as they issued from the gap and saw Mau beneath: they didn't want it, they said in their hundred voices, 'No, not yet,' and the sky said, 'No, not there.'" Chapter 37, pg. 362
Earth 1: The Marabar Hills are described as the fists and fingers of the south. Despite their human characteristics, the hills are imposing. Earth here is more impressive than any of the people in Chandrapore.
Earth 2: The women are fascinated by the moonlight, which has a mystical quality to it. However, a British stranger reminds them that in British India, though they might be halfway around the world from home, they stick to the same moon. Therefore, there is little spirit or imagination in the India of the English. Mrs. Moore and Adela hope for something more.
Earth 3: Looking into the sky, Mrs. Moore sees a moon that is very different from the moon in England. This moonlight filled her with a sense of unity with nature and the heavens the way it never had at home.
Earth 4: The heat of April, an aspect of the earth in India, makes things quite unbearable and influences the behavior of those who live there.
Earth 5: McBryde tries to argue that the hot climate and geographic conditions of India drive the Indians to behave the way they do. He contends that nature has control over man in India and if the British were to endure this climate, they would behave the same way.
Earth 6: When Mrs. Moore first came to India, the mystical forces of the earth overtook her. However, after the engagement of Ronny and Adela, she becomes burdened with the duties of reality and this disrupts her union with spirit and earth.
Earth 7: The echoes of the cave haunt Adela and make her question her charges against Aziz. The sound of the caves haunts her until she reveals the truth about Aziz and clears her conscience.
Earth 8: The earth prevents Aziz and Fielding from riding back to each other. It prevents the continuation of their friendship, at least until the British leave India.
Love 1: Though they have broken off the engagement, the bumpy ride in Nawab Bahadur's car awakens Adela and Ronny's feelings of love, or at least lust.
Love 2: Aziz and Fielding discuss marriage. Aziz admits that he fell in love with his wife after they were married. Sharing the photo of his wife with him is an act of brotherly love. Fielding also admits that he has never married or never plans to. He says he is too old to fall in love.
Love 3: Adela begins to doubt her love for Ronny. She realizes she is not in love with him and questions if she is capable of loving another. She thinks she is too intellectual to be in love.
Love 4: Fielding can not understand why Aziz loved Mrs. Moore so much, since she had not been there for Aziz, especially after the cave incident. He tells Fielding that Mrs. Moore was oriental in her emotions--she never measured love. Fielding is very western and Aziz feels he measures his emotions too much.
Love 5: Ronny terminates the engagement with Adela. The two had never been in love and were probably incapable of loving each other.
Love 6: Both Adela and Fielding have given up on love and think they will never love anyone.
Love 7: Ralph tells Aziz that his mother loved him very much. Though Aziz is very short with Ralph, Ralph overlooks the behavior and assures him that he is a friend, though he is a stranger. This oriental attitude is like his mother's. Ralph proves he is capable of loving on instinct the way his mother had.
Nationalism 1: The British National Anthem inspires feelings of power rather than patriotism. England's role in India is one of power and control.
Nationalism 2: While discussing Akbar, a Hindu figure who had a unifying force, Aziz tells Mrs. Moore and Adela that India cannot be united. As a Muslim, he feels divided from the other half of India.
Nationalism 3: Adela begins to feel guilty about the notion of the British as a civilizing force. She contemplates who gave them the right to control a country. At the same time, McBryde uses a "scientific" approach to prove the racial and national superiority of the British over the Indians.
Nationalism 4: Mahmoud Ali becomes vocal about the unfair role of the British in India. He stands up for Indian nationalism and storms out of the court.
Nationalism 5: The otherwise pro-British Nawab Bahadur, the most diplomatic and respected of Indians, becomes so inspired by the cruel treatment of his son and the treatment of Aziz by the British, that he renounces his name and title for his Islamic name.
Nationalism 6: The trial awoke the nationalist spirit in Aziz. He now began to think of the motherland in his poetry.
Nationalism 7: Aziz expresses his wish not to associate with any British people. He even pushes away the friendship of Fielding.
Nationalism 8: Aziz and Fielding part ways, knowing they can never be friends as long as the British continue to control India.
Religion 1: At the Mosque, Aziz feels renewed. He feels most at home there. His body and spirit are unified by his religion in the Mosque. He is more loyal to Islam than to his country.
Religion 2: Two missionaries discuss God and how he does not exclude any creature from his house. This conversation is ironic against the backdrop of the colonized India.
Religion 3: Mrs. Moore is a religious woman. She talks to Ronny about the bad and unchristian treatment of the British towards the Indians. She says that God loves everyone and since India is part of the earth, God loves the Indians.
Religion 4: Religious thought is divided in India. Aziz blames an Indian couple's bad manners on the fact that they are Hindu.
Religion 5: To put Aziz at ease when Fielding and Godbole do not arrive, she tells him that they will all be Muslims together--signifying their equality.
Religion 6: Aziz tells Mrs. Moore and Adela that he can not accept the Hindu notion of universality. He believes it is best if every one adheres to his own religion.
Religion 7: In the caves, the 'boum' sound erases all religious thoughts from Mrs. Moore's mind. The echo becomes more powerful than her religion.
Religion 8: In the aftermath of the incident at the caves, Mrs. Moore loses her interest in religion and all other aspects of life.
Religion 9: In her despair, Adela strays from her usually intellectual ways and begins praying again.
Religion 10: In her absence, the Indians at the trial begin to chant Mrs. Moore's name. By mispronouncing her name as Esmiss Esmoor, they have called her the name of a Hindu goddess.
Religion 11: Mrs. Moore appears in Godbole's head during a spiritual fervor. The visit by Mrs. Moore completes him and brings him closer to God. God is love.
West vs. East 1: English people are civil, or even friendly, towards natives when they first arrive in India. However, the longer they stay in India, the greater the gulf grows between them and the Indians. Though the English and Indians are both physically in the East, there is a clear separation between Eastern and Western culture in colonized India.
West vs. East 2: Adela confronts Ronny about his treatment of Indians. Still fresh in India, she feels the bridge between East and West can be crossed with pleasant and equal behavior. Ronny advises her that her naïve perspective will change the longer she stays in the country.
West vs. East 3: Many Indians are skeptical about the sincerity of Turton's invitation to his Bridge Party. Nawab Bahadur, a person who is respected by British and Indians, convinces his countrymen to attend the party.
West vs. East 4: Adela and Mrs. Moore are sad that there is no interaction between the British hosts and the Indian guests. The Bridge Party does not create a bridge between the people.
West vs. East 5: Fielding and Aziz forge an instant friendship despite their racial differences.
West vs. East 6: Aziz tells Nawab Bahadur's grandson that believing in superstition and evil spirits is a defect of the East. The West has advanced, he believes, because they believe in reason and logic.
West vs. East 7: Fielding tries to tell Aziz that he should not think about the picnic in terms of East and West, but simply in terms of friendship.
West vs. East 8: Turton, who believes his years of experience in India have made him wise and knowledgeable, says that Indians and English are incapable of interacting on an intimate basis. That is why he feels there should exist a great distance between them.
West vs. East 9: Aziz tries to explain to Fielding that Mrs. Moore, though an old British woman, was an Oriental at heart. She had an Eastern way of relating to people. Aziz considers measuring emotion, as Fielding does, to be a Western trait.
West vs. East 10: Aziz and Fielding part ways, knowing they will never see each other again. The notion that Indians and British can never be intimate friends while the British control India seems to hold true.
Women 1: Mrs. Moore impresses Aziz by removing her shoes before she enters the Mosque. This is a sign of respect that he does not expect from British women in his country.
Women 2: Fielding contends that English women can never be friends with Indian men. Disaster happens whenever the two meet.
Women 3: Aziz shows Fielding a picture of his wife: an act that is forbidden unless it is between brothers due to the tradition of purdah, the separation and veiling of women. Fielding asks if people in the world were to treat each other as equally as brothers, if there would be no more need for purdah.
Women 4: Aziz's friends now warn him that it is not advisable for him to mix with British women. They predict something bad will happen due to his interaction with these ladies.
Women 5: At the club, the men talk of protecting the women and children. This incites in them a blinding national pride.
Women 6: Aziz begins to write poetry about Oriental womanhood. He calls for the end of purdah, which he believes is an essential step to forming Indian statehood.
Chandrapore is an Indian city under the British Raj, or colonial rule. Two contrasting sides of Chandrapore are presented: the dreary landscape of the section of city inhabited by the natives,
"So abased, so monotonous is everything that meets the eye, that when the Ganges comes down it might be expected to wash the excrescence back into the soil. Houses do fall, people are drowned and left rotting, but the general outline of the town persists, welling here, shrinking there, like some low but indestructible form of life." Chapter 1, pg. 2
and the orderly and neat section of the city inhabited by the British colonists,
"On the second rise is laid out the little civil station, and viewed hence Chandrapore appears to be a totally different place. It is a city of gardens. It is no city, but a forest sparsely scattered with huts. It is a tropical pleasaunce washed by a noble river." Chapter 1, pg. 4
Readers are introduced to the Marabar Caves, an imposing part of the Chandrapore landscape.
Topic Tracking: Earth 1
Dr. Aziz rides his bicycle over to the home of his friend Hamidullah who is having dinner with another friend Mahmoud Ali. The two were in the middle of discussing whether or not it is possible for Indians to be friends with Englishmen. Mahmoud contends that it is impossible, while Hamidullah believes that these friendships are only possible in England. Hamidullah studied at Cambridge and remembers his treatment by English people there as warm and cordial. They discuss that in India, the English come and act as polite gentlemen toward the Indians, the way the Collector of Chandrapore Mr.Turton did when he first arrived. However, after a short time, their attitudes change drastically:
"They all become exactly the same, not worse, not better. I give any Englishman two years, be he Turton or Burton. It is only the difference of a letter. And I give any English woman six months. All are exactly alike. Chapter 2, pg. 7
Topic Tracking: West vs. East 1
Hamidullah suggests that there is a difference between generations in the attitudes of the British toward the Indians. Under the reign of Queen Victoria, the treatment of Indians was much better than in the present. He recalls old friends from England who treated him very kindly when he was there and let him play with their children. Hamidullah says he knew the child, who he once carried on his shoulders, was living in India. He says he refused to visit him because he has probably already come under the influence of the Anglo-Indians there. Hamidullah fears that his friends' son would believe that he wants something from him. Mahmoud Ali only knows India after Victoria's time and as a result has to struggle to remember some instances of kindness by the British; Hamidullah can remember several instances of kindness. For Mahmoud Ali, kindness by Englishmen (and women) is an exception to the rule. During the course of their dinner, Hamidullah's wife, a distant aunt, asks Aziz when he will marry. Aziz responds that once was enough. Hamidullah tells his wife that he had already done his duty by sending all of his salary to his children, who live with his dead wife's mother. Hamidullah said that Aziz lives like a low-grade clerk. The men continue to sit around and enjoy their meal and read poetry. A servant interrupts their merriment. The servant carries a note from Chandrapore's Civil Surgeon, Major Callendar, that requests Aziz come to his house without giving a reason. The indifferent manner of the note reveals the arrogance of the Major toward the Indians. Aziz says,
"He has found out our dinner hour, that's all, and chooses to interrupt us every time, in order to show his power." Chapter 2, pg. 12
Aziz takes off quickly on his bicycle, which has no brakes or lights, and blows out one of his tires. He then jumps into a Tonga, a small type of horse-drawn carriage. When Aziz arrives at Callendar's compound, Callendar's servant tells Aziz that the Major has already left. Aziz asked if the Major left him a message and the servant says no. Aziz feels a sense of despair and is convinced that the Major had to have left a message. While he argues with the servant, two ladies, Mrs. Callendar and another British woman, walk past Aziz, ignoring his greeting with glances, and take off in his Tonga. Dejected, Aziz leaves the compound and stops for a rest at a Mosque.
The Mosque rejuvenates Aziz:
"A Mosque by winning his approval let loose his imagination. The temple of another creed, Hindu, Christian, or Greek, would have bored him and failed to awaken his sense of beauty. Here was Islam, his own country, more than a Faith, more than a battle cry, more, much more...Islam an attitude towards life both exquisite and durable, where his body and his thoughts found their home." Chapter 2, pg. 16
Topic Tracking: Religion 1
While Aziz is in the Mosque, an older woman walks in. Aziz interrupts her and shouts angrily that she shouldn't be in the Mosque. He tells her that the Mosque is a holy place and she has no right to enter with shoes on. The woman, Mrs. Moore, tells him that she has already removed her shoes. Aziz apologizes immediately, explaining that few women have the decency to remember to follow this custom. Mrs. Moore replies, "That makes no difference. God is here." Chapter 2, pg. 16
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Her response impresses Aziz, who asks her name. Mrs. Moore tells Aziz that she stepped out of the club where they were putting on a play that she had already seen in London. They strike up an immediate friendship and talk about their children. Mrs. Moore reveals that her son is Ronny Heaslop, the City Magistrate, and that she has two more children, a son Ralph and a daughter Stella back in England. Aziz notes a similarity between them, because he also has a daughter and two sons. The two also realize that they both dislike Mrs. Callendar. Aziz begins to rant and rave about his dislike of Mrs. Callendar and the latest incident with the Tonga. He feels instantly comfortable with Mrs. Moore and is excited by the fact that she sympathizes with him. He calls her an Oriental because she understands emotions, unlike her English compatriots. Aziz escorts Mrs. Moore back to the club and she tells him that she would have liked to invite him in, but she is not a member. Aziz replies that Indians are not allowed in the club anyway. Aziz walks home happy:
"As he strolled down hill beneath the lovely moon, and again saw the lovely mosque, he seemed to own the land as much as anyone who owned it. What did it matter if a few flabby Hindus had preceded him there, and a few chilly English succeeded." Chapter 2, pg. 22
Mrs. Moore returns to the club and is intercepted by Adela Quested, who has also left in the middle of the performance. Mrs. Moore's son Ronny Heaslop asked his mother to bring Adela to India with her. Adela and Ronny are both cautious in nature and India is their test to determine whether they should get married or not. Adela tells Mrs. Moore, "I want to see the real India." Chapter 3, pg. 22 Mrs. Moore tells Adela that the Turtons have arranged a sightseeing tour for them, but Adela skeptically replies that they will probably be taken on an elephant ride, implying that their hosts would lead them on a superficial tour of the country. The two women talk about the reflection of the moon that they see in the Ganges River. A stranger walks by them, listening to them talk about India and says, "Come on, India's not as bad as all that. Other side of the earth, if you like, but we stick to the same old moon." Chapter 3, pg. 23
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However, Adela remarks that though they are physically on the other side of the earth, they are not really seeing it. Mrs. Moore agreed with Adela and said that their lives were dull. Mrs. Moore seems less disappointed by this due to her older age and assures Adela, "Adventures do occur, but not punctually." Chapter 3, pg. 22 The performance ends and the band plays the National Anthem. The tune inspires little sentiment from the British, but gives them a sense of power.
Topic Tracking: Nation 1
The crowd lets out from the play and among them is Mr. Cyril Fielding, the schoolmaster at the government college. Ronny asks Fielding how his mother and Adela could see the real India. Fielding passes by and says that they should meet real Indians. Mrs. Lesley and Mrs. Callendar tell Adela that natives should be avoided. Mr. Turton tells them that he will organize a Bridge Party, at which time the women could meet some Indians. Adela asks Turton to introduce her only to the Indians that he comes across socially. Turton replies that he does not treat Indians as friends. After the Turtons leave, Ronny comments to Adela that Turton has done a good deed by organizing the Bridge Party. He tells Adela that Turton knows the country well since he has been here over 20 years. Ronny, however, still admits he is naïve and tells Adela an anecdote about the time he asked Mahmoud Ali if he wanted to smoke. Ronny said that Ali must have told all his friends because rumors were spreading that he was in with the City Magistrate. Ronny tells Adela that he came down hard on Ali in the courts and that it taught the man a lesson. Adela disagrees, believing that instead, Ronny should have invited all the other Indian lawyers for a smoke. Ronny recognizes Adela's good intentions and tells her he once thought like she did, but he changed.
Topic Tracking: West vs. East 2
The following day, Mrs. Moore awakens after sleeping outside. She slept there while trying to watch the moon:
"In England the moon had seemed dead and alien; here she was caught in the shawl of night together with earth and all other stars. A sudden sense of unity, of kinship with the heavenly bodies, passed into the old woman and out, like water through a tank, leaving a strange freshness behind." Chapter 3, pg. 28
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As she awakens, she tells the story of her encounter with Aziz at the Mosque. Ronny was upset when he heard that she encountered a Muslim in the Mosque, believing that Muslims were not to be trusted. Adela, on the other hand, was interested and fascinated by Mrs. Moore's encounter. Mrs. Moore is disappointed in Ronny's negative reaction and rude behavior.
The Collector, Mr. Turton, sends out invitations for the Bridge Party to several Indians in the neighborhood. Mahmoud Ali discusses the news of this party with the highly educated and most prominent Muslim landowner in the area, Nawab Bahadur. Mahmoud Ali is skeptical of Turton's intentions for throwing the party. He says that the English only sympathize with the Indians from a distance, but Nawab Bahadur tells Ali, "It is easy to sympathize at a distance. I value more the kind word that is spoken close to my ear." Chapter 4, pg. 35 Nawab Bahadur also says that Turton speaks to his ear and he listens, therefore he will drop his plans and attend the party. Someone overhears this and tells Nawab Bahadur that he is making himself cheap by attending the function. He replies saying that the invitation was worded graciously and there was no reason to feel cheap. Due to Nawab Bahadur's influence among Indians (as well as English) he convinces many people to attend the bridge party.
Topic Tracking: West vs. East 3
Two missionaries discuss God and whether God would exclude anyone from his home--including animals. They begin to run through hypothetical groups that might be excluded, all the way down to mud. One of the missionaries says: "No, no, this is going to far. We must exclude someone from our gathering, or we shall be left with nothing." Chapter 4, pg. 38
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The Bridge Party turns out to be unsuccessful by Adela and Mrs. Moore's standards. A large group of Indian guests arrives early and must wait idly for the British hosts. Mrs. Turton and Ronny laugh sarcastically about the party's turnout. Meanwhile, Adela and Mrs. Moore gaze sadly at the Indians:
"No, it was not picturesque; the East, abandoning its secular magnificence, was descending into a valley whose farther side no man can see." Chapter 5, pg. 39
Topic Tracking: West vs. East 4
Mrs. Turton reluctantly hosts a group of Indian women. She addresses them in Urdu using lingo she learned to address her servants. She does not know any polite expressions, only commands. Adela is very interested in conversing with the Indians and tells them she regrets not speaking their language. One woman in the crowd says she speaks English. This delights Adela but makes Mrs. Turton act coldly because she now knows someone in the group is westernized and might apply her own standards to her. Adela and Mrs. Moore befriend one woman, Mrs. Bhattacharya. They ask to call on her for a social visit. Mrs. Bhattacharya and her husband invite them despite the fact they were due to be away at the time. The exchange is awkward and Mrs. Moore and Adela feel badly that they have imposed on the Bhattacharyas. Mr. Fielding is the most successful Englishman of the party, comfortably mingling with the Indian guests. He hears about the graciousness of the ladies and wishes to meet them. When he meets them, he complains to them about the way the English treat the Indians. He invites them to meet some Indian people that he knows. Adela suggests to Fielding that he should invite Dr. Aziz. Later, when Ronny is alone with his mother, Mrs. Moore tells Ronny that he should spend more private time with Adela. He tells his mother that he worries about how people will talk about them. Mrs. Moore tells Ronny Adela is too much of an individual to care about what other people say. They also talk about the issue of treatment of the Indians. Ronny treats this as a "side issue." Mrs. Moore is annoyed by his behavior and tells him that Englishmen behave as Gods in India.
He replies he has no time to be pleasant to Indians because he is there on a duty for England. Mrs. Moore still believes that they should be pleasant to the Indians "[b]ecause India is part of the earth. And God has put us on the earth in order to be pleasant to each other. God is love." Chapter 5, pg. 53
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Ronny sees his mother's religious thoughts as a symptom of her old age and growing senility--he only approves of religion if it endorses the state.
Aziz does not attend because the party took place on the anniversary of the death of his wife. Aziz did not fall in love with his wife right away. It was an arranged marriage and Aziz was too westernized in thought to accept the marriage. He didn't like the idea of having his wife chosen for him. It wasn't until she gave birth to their first child that he fell in love with her. She died while giving birth to their second son. He takes out his wife's photograph and realizes that he is unhappy. Without his wife, he fears that he might not raise his children properly. When he locks up the photograph, the thought of his wife passes and he does not think of her again. Dr. Aziz runs into another Muslim, Dr. Lal. Dr. Lal asks Aziz why he did not attend Turton's Bridge Party. He tells Aziz that his absence was noticed and drew comments by attendees, especially Turton. Aziz nonchalantly makes an excuse for not attending. He tells Dr. Lal that he doesn not care if people talked about his absence, as if he was looking to instigate a fight with Lal. Lal blames Aziz's attitude on his youth. After this exchange, Aziz begins to worry about skipping the party and being so rash while talking to Dr. Lal. When he arrives home, he finds a letter with a government stamp and begins to panic. The letter is an invitation from Fielding to his home for tea. This letter revives Aziz's spirits. He is happy because Fielding had invited Aziz to dinner once before and Aziz forgot to attend. He is relieved that Fielding invited him once again without rebuke.
Fielding has come to India late in his life. He was over 40 when he first set foot in the country. The longer Fielding remains in India, the larger the gulf grows between himself and his fellow Englishmen. His countrymen see him as a controversial figure because he interacts with Indians. Fielding has matured differently than the other Englishmen and never leaned to follow the crowd: "[H]e did not realize that 'white' has no more to do with a colour than 'God save the King' with a god, and that it is the height of impropriety to consider what it does connote." Chapter 7, pg. 65 Mr. Fielding thinks it is possible to be friends with both English men and Indians, but not possible to be friends with both English women and Indians.
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Fielding invited Mrs. Moore and Adela to tea because they are new to India, and uncorrupted, seeing things with an equal eye. Aziz arrives at Fielding's while Fielding is still in the shower. They begin to talk, though they cannot see each other. Aziz is very excited to finally meet Fielding. While Fielding is dressing, he drops his collar stud and steps on it. Aziz offers him the stud off of his own collar. They become immediately intimate and dispense with all formalities.
Topic Tracking: West vs. East 5
Mrs. Moore, Adela, and Professor Godbole, a Hindu who is Fielding's assistant, join Aziz and Fielding. Adela and Mrs. Moore bring up their blunder with the Bhattacharyas to Aziz and ask what they have done wrong. The Bhattacharyas never sent the carriage to pick up the ladies to go to their home on the date on which they agreed. Aziz blames the Indian couple's lack of manners on the fact that they are Hindus.
Topic Tracking: Religion 4
He also says that they might have been embarrassed by the poor quality of their home. Mrs. Moore finds their behavior mysterious. "A mystery is only a high sounding term for a muddle. No advantage in stirring it up, in either case. Aziz and I know well that India is a muddle." Chapter 7, pg. 73
Aziz feels comfortable in this company and starts to tell them about Indian history, though his tales are inaccurate. Adela is very captivated by what Aziz has to say. Her affability pleases Aziz and Godbole. Azis feels so comfortable that he invites everyone to his house. Realizing that his quarters are substandard, he later offers to take the ladies on a tour of the Marabar Caves, even though he has never been there. Ronny interrupts their conversation. He ignores the Indians on his way into the room and notices that Fielding is not with them. He asks one of the servants to find Fielding because he is worried that his mother and Adela were left alone with Indians. He insists on taking the women to a polo match, although they are not interested in watching the match. The group parts ways, all a bit irritated after Ronny's interruption.
The purpose of Adela's visit to see Ronny in India is to see if she likes him at work as much as she had liked him socially. She wants to be sure she wants to marry him. Adela realizes that India has changed Ronny for the worse. He becomes exasperating to her. She especially hates the way he took her away in the middle of Godbole's spiritual song at Fielding's tea. Ronny asks Adela about Aziz's trip to the caves and Adela replies that he took her away before she made any concrete plans with the doctor. He tries to explain to Adela that like all other Indians, Aziz is slack and won't come through:
"Aziz was exquisitely dressed, from tie-pin to spats, but he had forgotten his back-collar stud, and there you have the Indian all over; inattention to detail, the fundamental slackness that reveals the race." Chapter 8, pg. 87
The missing stud is the one Aziz gave to Fielding when he stepped on his own. Ronny tells the women that he does not want his mother and friend to go on Aziz's excursion to the caves unless British people escort them. Mrs. Moore is annoyed and refuses to go to the polo match with the couple. On the way to the match, Adela thinks about her behavior at the party and regrets revealing to the guests that she had no intention of staying in India and marrying Ronny. She finally decides she needs to have a talk with Ronny. Ronny has already heard about the decision through Aziz and diplomatically tells Adela that she never really committed to him in the first place and therefore should not feel upset about her decision. Adela feels ashamed since Ronny has reacted so decently. The two decide to remain friends. After their talk, they run into Nawab Bahadur. He offers Ronny and Adela a ride in his new car. The ride is very bumpy and dark, forcing the couple to jolt around and into each other. The car hits an animal and Adela's falls onto Ronny's, renewing their attraction to each other:
"Her hand touched his, owing to a jolt, and one of the thrills so frequent in the animal kingdom passed between them, and announced that their difficulties were only a lovers' quarrel." Chapter 8, pg. 95
Topic Tracking: Love 1
Following the accident, Miss Derek pulls up in a car she borrowed from her boss, the maharajah. In Miss Derek's car, Ronny and Adela hold hands; both silently acknowledging it meant something. Adela takes back what she said to Ronny and the two become engaged. Arriving home, Ronny recounts the tale of the car accident to his mother, explaining how the car hit an animal. Mrs. Moore says immediately in passing that it was a ghost.
Back in Chandrapore, Aziz is visiting the grandson of Nawab Bahadur, Nureddin. They have a discussion about evil spirits and Aziz tells the grandson not to believe in them in order for him to advance in the world. Aziz believes that the belief in spirits is a defect of the Indian people.
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Aziz lies ill in bed. Dr. Panna Lal pays him a house call on behalf of Major Callendar, who wants to make sure Aziz is really ill. The room is crowded with visitors. Fielding enters Aziz's room without being noticed. This flatters Aziz, though he is ashamed of his surroundings. During the visit, Hamidullah begins to talk politics and asks Fielding why the British are justified in holding India and taking away jobs from well-qualified Indians. Fielding frankly tells the others in the room that he is happy to be in India and that is his justification for being there. Hamidullah continues to ask unfriendly questions to Fielding and Aziz is too tired and ill to contribute to their exchange. Fielding leaves the room feeling dissatisfied that Aziz made little effort to talk to him.
The season of bad weather, April, is about to pass over India. All of Aziz's visitors were aware of the bad weather, which makes life unbearable for them and makes them quite lethargic. Powerful heat and very strong sunshine overcome them.
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Aziz calls Fielding back in his house. He is ashamed of his quarters and wants to find a way to offer Fielding hospitality. He takes out a picture of his dead wife, his most valued possession. Fielding notes to Aziz that he should not be allowed to see his wife, who would have been in the purdah. Aziz tells him he would have told his wife that Fielding was his brother and allowed him to see her. He says that Fielding has behaved like his brother. Fielding replies, "And when the whole world behaves as such, there will be no more purdah?" Chapter 11, pg. 126
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This response is why Aziz respects Fielding--he understands his emotions. He is thankful that Fielding visited him again even though Aziz was short with him. Aziz and Fielding discuss marriage and Aziz is curious why the middle-aged Fielding has never married nor had a child. Fielding remarks that he does not want anyone to fuss over him and he is not worried that his name will not be carried on. Aziz is fascinated by the notion that Fielding has nothing to lose:
"But he [Aziz] himself was rooted in society and Islam. He belonged to a tradition, which bound him, and he had brought children into the world, the society of the future. Though he lived so vaguely in this flimsy bungalow, nevertheless he was placed, placed." Chapter 11, pg. 131
Topic Tracking: Love 2
This chapter describes the Marabar Caves as a series of tunnels that are indistinguishable from each other. Visits to the Caves are neither extraordinary nor dull. Visitors have mixed reactions to the caves.
Adela and Mrs. Moore become offended that Aziz has forgotten about his offer to show the women the caves. After learning of their disappointment, Aziz, who thought the invitation was long forgotten, starts to make arrangements for his picnic at the caves. He secures Fielding and Godbole as companions on the picnic. Though the ladies accept the invitation, no one is excited about the picnic. The arrangements become rather costly for Aziz, who is very careful to make sure that everything goes right and that everyone is accommodated. His friends advise him that mixing with English ladies is a bad idea.
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The ladies arrive at the train station alone, without Fielding. He puts them in the purdah section of the train, while he frantically waits for Godbole and Fielding. As the train begins to run, Aziz sees the two men arriving at the station. Aziz tries to pull Fielding on the train, hanging outside the carriage close to the platform, but Mrs. Moore protests, assuring Aziz that everything will be all right without them. One of Godbole's prayers took too long and held up their arrival. Meanwhile, a servant that Ronny sent with his women tries to come along on the trip to ensure their safety, but Mrs. Moore and Adela insists that he go away. Mrs. Moore then tells Aziz that they can all be Muslims together.
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This remark impresses Aziz and reminds him of his feelings for Mrs. Moore, "All the love he felt for her at the Mosque welled up again, the fresher for forgetfulness." Chapter 13, pg. 145
Adela also assures Aziz that they feel they are in good hands. Aziz once again feels important and competent.
The ladies sit on the train and Mrs. Moore listens to Adela make plans for her future with Ronny. Making plans is Adela's passion. Mrs. Moore falls asleep during Adela's ramblings because she is feeling tired and in poor health. In her weakened condition, it was advised that Mrs. Moore shouldn't have taken the trip, but she does so in order to please everyone. When they arrive at the caves, they see that everything is set up for them: a guide, elephants, servants, food, etc. The picnic is only supposed to last for four hours, but Aziz ensures that every detail is arranged in order to achieve true hospitality, a goal of Orientals. The happiness of his company is tied to his honor. Aziz tells Mrs. Moore and Adela that their friendship is special because it involves great obstacles. Mrs. Moore feels renewed by her friendship with Aziz. Aziz is comfortable in their company. He begins to tell them about his favorite emperors of Indian history. Mrs. Moore and Adela are curious about Akbar, the founder of Hinduism. They are interested in him because his religion "embraces" the whole of India. Aziz is skeptical of this claim and replies to Adela, "You keep your religion, I mine. That is best. Nothing embraces the whole of India, nothing, nothing and that was Akbar's mistake." Chapter 14, pg. 160
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Adela says she was thinking about Akbar and the theme of universality because of her future marriage to Ronny. She fears turning into a rude Anglo-Indian like those before her (Mrs. Callendar, Mrs. Turton) have done. Aziz assures Adela that she will never change because she is different from the others. They begin their exploration of the caves. In one of the caves, Mrs. Moore gets separated from Adela and Aziz in the darkness and is touched by something on her face. She doesn't know what hit her and all she can hear is the haunting echoes inside the caves. After they all come out of the cave, Aziz tells Mrs. Moore and Adela that he can take them to better caves by the Kawa Dol. Mrs. Moore, haunted by her experience in the first cave, tells them that she will remain because she can not endure the walking. Mrs. Moore tries to compose a letter to her children, but is too distracted by the "boum" echoes of the cave. The echoes begin to take a hold on her life:
"But suddenly, at the edge of her mind, Religion appeared, poor little talkative Christianity, and she knew that all its divine words from 'Let there be light' to 'It is finished' only amounted to 'boum.'" Chapter 14, pg. 166
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She has lost all interest in anything, even Aziz.
Aziz and Adela are quiet during their expedition. The sun is very strong and Aziz does not have much to talk to Adela about in the absence of Mrs. Moore. Meanwhile, Adela is too preoccupied with her upcoming wedding to carry on a conversation with Aziz. In the middle of her silent thoughts, she realizes that she does not love Ronny.
Topic Tracking: Love 3
Full of doubt and uncertainty, she begins to ask Aziz questions about his personal life--about his wife and children. She offends Aziz by asking him if he has more than one wife. Adela wanders off alone into a cave, preoccupied with the thoughts of her marriage.
Aziz realizes that Adela has gone missing. He knows it will be impossible to find her amid all the caves. Aziz hears a car pull up on the road from Chandrapore towards Marabar. Aziz guesses that Adela jumped in the car. On his way back to his camp, he finds Adela's glasses and slips them into his pocket. Aziz sees Fielding who got a ride in Miss Derek's car and found his way to the picnic camp. Both he and Mrs. Moore are curious about Adela's whereabouts, but Aziz insists she took off in Miss Derek's car. Meanwhile, Mrs. Moore has grown cynical and loses the love and zeal she had for India that she had in the beginning. After the picnic is over, Aziz and Fielding talk about the relations between English and Indians on the way to the train. Fielding tells Aziz that the picnic was not about English and Indians, but about friends.
Topic Tracking: West vs. East 7
When the train arrives in Chandrapore, Aziz is arrested. Mr. Haq, who performs the arrest, won't tell Fielding on what grounds Aziz is being arrested. Fielding publicly pledges his support for Aziz.
Fielding walks into Turton's office. Turton tells Fielding that Adela has been "insulted" in the caves. Fielding feels sickened by the accusation, refusing to believe that his friend Aziz was responsible. Turton had called Fielding into his office to exonerate him since he was seen with Aziz. Fielding does not accept and snaps at Turton, calling Adela "mad." Turton is angered by Fielding's response and says:
"'I have had twenty five years experience of this country--and twenty five years seemed to fill the waiting room with their staleness and ungeneroisity--and during those twenty five years, I have never known anything but disaster result when English people and Indians attempt to be intimate socially.'" Chapter 17, pg. 182
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Turton is as intent on avenging Adela as much as Fielding is intent on clearing Aziz's name. Turton invites Fielding to the club for a town meeting. Turton becomes frustrated with Fielding, who reminded Turton that they needed to wait for evidence; Fielding is still being reasonable, while the rest of the English are up in arms. All of India is full of emotion. Riots and demonstrations take place.
Mr. McBryde detains Aziz until someone posts bail. McBryde is not surprised by Aziz's downfall, believing that the climate of India affects the inhabitants. McBryde believes the extreme heat makes it impossible for Indians to behave normally. He says, "They are not to blame, they have not a dog's chance--we should be like them if we settled here." Chapter 18, pg. 184
Topic Tracking: Earth 5
Fielding visits McBryde to ask him what the exact charges are against Aziz. He tells Fielding that Aziz followed Adela into a cave and made insulting remarks. She then threw her field glasses at him, explaining why Aziz had them in his possession. He asks McBryde what else Adela said and McBryde mentions that Adela heard echoes in the caves. Fielding asks if the echoes disturbed her, believing that she suffered from hallucinations and that Aziz was innocent. He contends that if Aziz were really guilty, he probably would not have placed Adela's glasses in his pocket. McBryde tries to explain to Fielding that Indians operate with a different psychology that is very different to the English, contending from "experience" that Indians fall from grace fast and develop into bad adults. He takes out a box of evidence ransacked from Aziz's bungalow and shows Fielding a letter that Aziz received from his friend who owns a brothel. McBryde also removes a picture of Aziz's wife from the evidence he collected, believing he kept pictures of women in his possession. Fielding explains that the woman was Aziz's wife.
Hamidullah waits to see McBryde and notices Aziz's possessions being dragged inside by a dirty police officer. Hamidullah sees Fielding and he frantically reviews different strategies to fight the charge with him. He believes they should come on strong, bringing in controversial and vocal barristers in Aziz's defense. Fielding calms him down and tells him to let the events play out. Hamidullah is impressed by Fielding's loyalty to the Indians' side. Fielding wishes, however, that he could be more low-key and not seen as completely anti-British. Fielding obtains a permit to visit Aziz, who is miserable. He also tries to write a letter to Adela to convince her to drop the charges, though it is likely it will never reach her.
At the club, people address their concerns about the safety of women and children in town. This discussion fuels the men in the club and motivates them to take action. "They had started speaking of women and children, that phrase that exempts the male from sanity when it has been repeated a few times." Chapter 20, pg. 203
Topic Tracking: Women 5
Turton talks the crowd out of battling against the Indians. Turton, Lesley, Callendar, and others try to assign blame to the incident in the caves and go as far as accusing Godbole of having been bribed to make Fielding late and miss the train to Marabar. Ronny enters the room. His compatriots have already martyred him. Everyone rises out of respect as he walks into the meeting room, except for Fielding, who does not want to betray Aziz. "But every humane act in the East is tainted with officialism, and while honoring him they condemned Aziz and India." Chapter 20, pg. 208
Fielding's snubbing of Ronny catches the attention of the officials in the room, but he does not care. Fielding announces that if Aziz is found guilty, he will resign from his post as Principal and leave India. He also announces his resignation from the club. Turton is furious and kicks Fielding out of the club.
Fielding meets with his new allies--Hamidullah and Aziz's other friends. Since Adela appeared to be quite ill when her friends visited her, the court ordered that Aziz be held without bail. Fielding, along with the others, talk about reapplying for bail since Adela was now reported to be in better health.
Adela stays in the McBrydes' bungalow. She is sun-stroked and Miss Derek and Mrs. McBryde remove cactus thorns that are still on her skin. Adela receives many visitors except from the only person she wants to see: Mrs. Moore. Adela cannot get the echo from the caves out of her head:
"The sound had spouted after her when she escaped, and was going on still like a river that gradually floods the plain. Only Mrs. Moore could drive it back to its source and seal the broken reservoir. Evil was loose...she could hear it entering the lives of others." Chapter 22, pg. 215
Mrs. McBryde and Miss Derek try to revive Adela's spirits by promising to get revenge on the Indians. Ronny checks in on Adela, talking about the trial with her and Mr. McBryde. She cries hysterically even though she hates crying. Ronny shows Adela the letter he received from Fielding, which says that Aziz is innocent. Back at Ronny's bungalow, Mrs. Moore does not get up to greet the couple. Her behavior is very cold to them. Adela takes Mrs. Moore's hands, which causes the old woman to back away from her. Mrs. Moore ignores Adela's excitement to see her and concentrates her attention on her departure from India:
"Her Christian tenderness had gone, or had developed into hardness, a just irritation against the human race; she had taken no interest at the arrest, asked scarcely any questions, and had refused to leave her bed on one awful last night of Mohurram, when an attack was expected on the bungalow." Chapter 22, pg. 221
Topic Tracking: Religion 8
Crying after Mrs. Moore's chilly reception, Adela begins to cry out Aziz's name. She believes she has made a mistake. The echo goes away after saying his name and she asks Ronny if she should give up the trial. Adela believes she heard Mrs. Moore say Aziz was innocent. Mrs. Moore enters the room and says she never said Aziz's name. Adela realizes the letter from Fielding stated this. Mrs. Moore, however, now nonchalantly says that of course Aziz is innocent. Adela tells Mrs. Moore that she has driven the echo away because she does nothing but good. Ronny encourages Adela to go on with the case, even though she considers withdrawing. He also decides he should send his mother out of India since she is of no use to herself or any one else in the country.
Ronny uses his influence to get his mother back on a boat to England, even though the seats on the boat were booked. She would have to travel in the hot season. At first, Mrs. Moore's experience in India had been spiritual and mystical:
"As soon as she landed in India, it seemed to her good, and when she saw the water flowing through the mosque tank, or the Ganges, or the moon caught in the shawl of night with all the other stars, it seemed a beautiful goal and an easy one." Chapter 23, pg. 231
Mrs. Moore's union with spirit and nature was interrupted by her duties in life, such as the wedding. The incident at the caves was the final blow. She departs from Chandrapore, which is lit by the moonlight.
Topic Tracking: Earth 6
Adela starts praying again, something she had not done for years due to her intellectualism.
Topic Tracking: Religion 9
The echo returns in Adela's head. In the courthouse, Adela looks around and begins to wonder, "by what right did they claim so much importance in the world and assume the title of civilization?" Chapter 24, pg. 242
McBryde makes the opening remarks, describing what led to the picnic at Marabar. He talks about Oriental pathology and tries to explain that darker races are by nature attracted to fairer races, but not vice versa.
Topic Tracking: Earth 7
Topic Tracking: Nationalism 3
Looking around the courtroom, Adela sees the people whom she met who were supposed to show her the real India: Fielding, Aziz, etc. She begins once again to doubt the guilt of Aziz. McBryde continues his defense and tells the court that Aziz is a cruel man who treated his guests in a cruel manner. He accuses Aziz of stuffing Mrs. Moore into a cave. Mahmoud Ali, a co-defender in the trial, becomes enraged and says that if she had been present, Mrs. Moore could have clinched the case for the defense right away, because she would have defended the Indians. He accuses the English officials of smuggling Mrs. Moore out of the country, preventing her from siding with the defense. Ali's arguments are tinged with nationalistic undertones. He is fearless of being condemned by the British Raj.
Topic Tracking: Nationalism 4
Mahmoud Ali furiously leaves the courthouse and the case behind. His outburst fuels the Indians in the courthouse. They begin chanting an Indianized version of Ronny's mother's name, "Esmiss Esmoor." "It was revolting to him [Ronny] to hear his mother travestied into Esmiss Esmoor, a Hindu goddess." Chapter 24, pg. 250
His mother has become deified and spiritualized by the Indian crowd.
Topic Tracking: Religion 10
Adela is put in the witness box and she is asked to recount her side of the story. When McBryde reaches the section of her being followed to the cave by Aziz, Adela hesitates. She asks for a moment to think. She then replies that she can not really be sure. Pressed further, Adela announces that she has made a mistake and that Dr. Aziz never followed her into the cave. Major Callendar tries to stop the proceedings on medical grounds. Mr. Das, the judge in the case, asks the English officials if they would like to withdraw the case. Reluctantly and angrily, they do. Mr. Das, an Indian, has successfully controlled and presided over the case, and the Indians in the courthouse rise excitedly.
Celebrations and processions are taking place outside the court. Adela walks into a mass of Indians through the crowded streets and bazaar. People who were celebrating her didn't even recognize her and some children put a floral garland around her head. Adela bumps into Fielding. She tries to ignore him, but he is worried about her wandering off alone in the streets. He puts Adela into his carriage and has to skip out on Aziz's procession and celebration. He takes Adela to his office at the Government College and tries to contact someone to watch over her. The procession passes him by, but he is unable to join them. The procession passes the hospital where British officials are treating Nawab Bahadur's grandson for wounds inflicted on him. A crowd gathers there chanting angrily against the British. At first, Nawab Bahadur tries to make the crowd rational and calm. When Nureddin, the grandson, emerges, his face covered in bandages, Nawab Bahadur is angry and announces that he has given up his British title and will now be known as Mr. Zulfiqar.
Topic Tracking: Nationalism 5
Adela and Fielding are alone. Fielding has little interest in hearing what she has to say, but is finally interested when she mentions that her echo is now gone. She tells him that she was ill ever since she got to the cave. This confirms Fielding's first suspicion that she hallucinated. Hamidullah walks in, ready to take Fielding away. Fielding tries to figure out what to do with Adela. Though Hamidullah disapproves, Fielding suggests that she remain in the college. Hamidullah warns that McBryde's thugs might try and find Fielding there and attack. Adela does not want to impose on anyone. Ronny comes to Fielding's with a telegram. The telegram says that Mrs. Moore has died. They believe heat caused her death. Hamidullah is brutal and offers no sympathy regarding her death. Adela is shaken. She chooses to remain inside the college while Ronny waits outside for her. She wants to be alone and decides to remain there for a while. On the way to the party, Fielding is surprised to learn that Aziz will ask for 20,000 rupees from Adela for damages. Fielding believes this is harsh, since he is beginning to sympathize with Adela. Fielding and Hamidullah decide not to tell Aziz about Mrs. Moore until after the party so he can enjoy himself.
Aziz and Fielding talk about plans for the future while lying around at Nawab Bahadur's, or Mr. Zulfiqar's party. He tells Fielding that he wants nothing to do with the British except for him. Fielding, however, tries to convince Aziz to drop the fees against Adela. Aziz refuses sharply and believes he deserves to collect money from her. Fielding tries to convince Aziz that Adela was brave to come forward with the truth and insists that she must not get the worst treatment of both worlds. Aziz tells Fielding the only way he will relent is if Mrs. Moore gives him the approval. Fielding does not understand his attachment to the old woman. Aziz tells him that Mrs. Moore was like an Oriental and that he would not understand because he measures his emotions, a very western trait.
Topic Tracking: Love 4
Topic Tracking: West vs. East 9
Finally, Fielding has to tell Aziz that Mrs. Moore is dead. Aziz does not believe she is dead because she does not feel dead.
A cult for Mrs. Moore develops in Chandrapore. Though Mrs. Moore wished to leave India, Ronny feels guilty about the death of his mother since he knew that sending her off in the heat of the season would jeopardize her health. She had been an annoyance to him and a poor influence on Adela. Planning her burial arrangement, Ronny realizes that he knows very little about his mother's religious traditions. Ronny is devoid of religious spirit:
"Ronny's religion was of the sterilized Public School brand, which never goes bad, even in the tropics. Wherever he entered, mosque, cave or temple, he retained the spiritual outlook of the fifth form, and condemned as 'weakening' any attempt to understand them." Chapter 28, pg. 286
Ronny also terminates his engagement to Adela. Her involvement in the Marabar incident killed off any love, which was never strong in the first place.
Topic Tracking: Love 5
Adela becomes a greater part of Fielding's life. Adela is seen spending late hours talking with Fielding. Fielding and Aziz continue to argue about Adela's fine. Fielding uses the name and memory of Mrs. Moore to encourage Aziz to drop his attempt to get money from Adela. Using Mrs. Moore, Fielding appeals to Aziz's heart. Ronny tells Fielding Adela is about to return to England. Adela sees Fielding one more time before she leaves and they have a discussion about love. They both realize that they don't seek love anymore.
Topic Tracking: Love 6
She tells Fielding that her first goal back in England is to look up Mrs. Moore's other two children: Ralph and Stella.
The trial has the immediate effect of unifying Hindus and Muslims. Aziz is a national hero, regardless of his creed. Mr. Das comes to Aziz for medical advice and a poem for his brother's magazine. Since the trial, Aziz has started writing poems with a nationalist theme. The trial awakened in Aziz a spirit of patriotism:
"The poem for Mr. Bhattacharya never got written, but it had an effect. It led him towards the vague and bulky figure of a mother-land. He was without natural affection for the land of his birth, but the Marabar Hills drove him to it. Half closing his eyes, he attempted to love India." Chapter 30, pg. 298
Topic Tracking: Nationalism 6
Aziz announces his wish to find a post as a doctor in a Muslim state in India, free from British control. Aziz's friends begin to tell him a rumor that has been spreading around Chandrapore: Fielding and Adela were having an affair. This news strikes a cord in Aziz--he declares he has no true friends.
Aziz begins to think about Fielding's alleged affair with Adela and cannot understand why Fielding could betray him for his enemy: a woman both of them found physically unattractive. Fielding denies it and Aziz accepts his word. Turton orders Fielding to come to the club again. New officials have been placed since the trial, but Fielding sees that the new officials will bring the same old attitude to the club (and to Chandrapore). Later, Fielding tells Aziz that he is going to England. Aziz asks if he will visit Adela. Once again, Aziz begins to suspect that Fielding is in fact consorting with Adela. He now thinks Fielding is going to London to marry Adela for the money he convinced Aziz not to take from the woman.
"Suspicion in the Oriental is a sort of malignant tumor, a mental malady, that makes him self-conscious and unfriendly suddenly; he trusts and mistrusts at the same time in a way the Westerner can not comprehend. It is his demon, as the Westerner's is hypocrisy." Chapter 32, pg. 311
Two years later, a religious Birth ceremony takes place in the Hindu region of Mau, where Godbole and Aziz now reside. He is now the Minister of Education in Mau. The ceremonies are very spiritual as the people in town await the birth of a new God. Signs that have been made for the ceremonies contain a misprint and read "God si love" instead of "God is love." In the middle of this spiritual fervor, the image of Mrs. Moore enters the head of Professor Godbole:
"Thus Godbole, though she was not important to him, remembered an old woman he had met in Chandrapore days. Chance brought her into his mind while it was in this heated state, he did not select her, she happened to occur among the throng of soliciting images, a tiny splinter, and he impelled her by his spiritual force to that place where completeness can be found." Chapter 33, pg. 321
Godbole also sees a wasp, which imitates God. These images reawaken Godbole's spirit and put him in the position of God. He is meant to love everyone.
Topic Tracking: Religion 10
Godbole tells Aziz that "he" is here in Mau. "He," as Aziz knows, refers to Fielding, who was in town on an official visit. Fielding has gotten married and brings with him his wife and brother in law. Aziz presumes he has married Adela and thus has no desire to see his old friend. A rift began to grow in their friendship ever since the trial ended. Fielding sent Aziz a series of postcards and letters to which Aziz never replied. Then Aziz received a letter from Hampstead, which said that Fielding was to marry a woman that Aziz knew. At that point, he stopped reading the letter, assuming it was Adela. He made Mahmoud Ali answer for him. But Aziz lived happily in Mau with his children. He wrote poetry about Oriental womanhood. He writes that India can not be free until purdah goes away.
Topic Tracking: Women 6
Godbole gives Aziz the note announcing Fielding's arrival. Aziz tears it up.
Aziz, with his children, runs into Fielding and his brother-in-law by accident. A bee has just stung the brother in law and Aziz attends to him. Fielding tries to get right to the point and asks Aziz why he has never replied to his letters. However, it is raining very hard outside and he never gets an answer. Aziz and Fielding have a cold conversation. Escorting Fielding and his brother-in-law to a carriage, Aziz calls the brother-in-law Mr. Quested. Fielding explains to Aziz that he did not marry Adela, but Mrs. Moore's daughter, Stella. He is escorted by Mrs. Moore's son, Ralph. Fielding is disappointed that Aziz assumed he married Adela because he mentioned his new wife by name several times. Mahmoud Ali knew this and wrote a mean letter back to Fielding. Fielding explains that Adela is their best friend. She introduced the married couple. Regardless of the truth, Aziz's initial embarrassment turns into rage. He tells Fielding not to bother him in Mau. Aziz tells Fielding that the can forgive Mahmoud Ali because he is of the same race. He tells Fielding: "My heart is for my own people henceforward." Chapter 35, pg. 339
He tells Fielding to stop following him. But Mrs. Moore had entered his mind again and he remembered that he made a promise to be kind to her children.
Topic Tracking: Nationalism 7
Aziz goes to the European Guest House where Fielding, his wife, and his brother-in-law are staying. He sees Ralph and inquires about his bee stings from earlier in the day. He follows up and examines the boy. His hands and bedside manner are rough, as he is reminded of Callendar's treatment of Nureddin. He refuses to give the boy salve to treat the stings. From the distance, they hear songs and noises from the procession and Aziz kindly holds out his hand. Aziz forgets the caves and asks Ralph if he still thinks him unkind. He replies no, and Aziz asks him if he can tell when a stranger is his friend. He replies that he can and Aziz replies: "Then you are an Oriental." Chapter 36, pg. 349
Topic Tracking: Love 6
This is what he said to Mrs. Moore in the Mosque. He gives the boy the salve and tells him to think of him when he uses it. Ralph tells Aziz that Mrs. Moore said she loved him in her letters.
Aziz decides to take Ralph out on the water, where they hear chanting and festivities from the palace. As the chants reach their peak, a wave pushes Aziz and Ralph's boat into a boat holding Fielding and Stella. The boats collide, and the four plunge in the water while the singing and celebrations carry on. Everyone achieves a sort of spiritual epiphany and mutual friendship.
Fielding and Aziz go for their last horse ride together in the jungle. They finally reconcile and behave to each other as they did before their rift. Aziz gives Fielding a letter he wants him to deliver to Adela, thanking her for her behavior two years ago. He writes that because of her he can live freely with his children. He wants to erase all of the business that took place in the Marabar Caves. Fielding begins to wonder if he would defend one Indian now the way he did two years ago. He has married an Englishwoman and become a true Anglo-Indian.
The two begin to discuss politics. Aziz tells Fielding that the Indians will one day drive out the British and then they can really be friends. Fielding asks why they cannot be friends now and their horses begin to pull away as they discuss the fate of their friendship:
"But the horses didn't want it-they swerved apart; the earth didn't want it, sending up rocks through which riders must pass single file; the temples, the tank, the jail, the palace, the birds, the carrion, the Guest House, that came into view as they issued from the gap and saw Mau beneath: they didn't want it, they said in their hundred voices, 'No, not yet,' and the sky said, 'No, not there.'" Chapter 37, pg. 362
Topic Tracking: Nationalism 8
Topic Tracking: West vs. East 10
Topic Tracking: Earth 8