The Prince Chapter 1
The kinds of principalities and the means by which they are acquired
Machiavelli identifies two types of states, or dominions that hold power over men: republics and principalities. Principalities can be either hereditary (rule by family succession) or new. For the former type, he gives as a recent example, King Ferdinand II of Spain and for the latter, Francesco Sforza of Milan. These principalities may be accustomed to previous rule (hereditary) or freedom (new). They may be acquired by fortune or ability.