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Notes on Objects & Places from Candide

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Candide Objects/Places

The Castle of Baron Thunder-ten-tronckh: This castle in the German province of Westphalia has a door and some windows, and this is why the Baron is very powerful. According to Pangloss, it is the best of all castles. For Candide, it is a kind of paradise.

Holland: Fleeing the Bulgarian army, Candide walks to Holland where he thinks he will be treated well because the Dutch are Christians. For the most part, Candide's reasoning proves wrong. Candide also meets Jacques the Anabaptist and finds Pangloss in Holland.

Lisbon, Portugal: After their ship sinks and Jacques drowns, Pangloss and Candide arrive in Lisbon where an earthquake and tidal wave destroy most of the port city. Then, for blasphemy, Pangloss is hung by the Spanish Inquisition in an auto-da-fé. Candide is beaten for listening to Pangloss.

The Spanish Inquisition: Officially instituted in 1478 by the Roman Catholic Church to help the Spanish monarchy seek out and punish heretics, the Spanish Inquisition was notorious for brutal practices such as torturing victims in order to get religious confessions.

Auto-da-Fé: 'Act of faith' in Portuguese. A public ceremony of the Spanish Inquisition during which religious leaders pronounced judgments against heretics. Punishment was carried out by government officials. Most victims were Protestant, Muslim, or Jewish. The condemned were burned at the stake.

San Benitos: A garment worn by both penitents and impenitents of the Spanish Inquisition. Penitents wore san benitos that were yellow with red crosses. Impenitents--heretics burned at the stake during autos-da-fé--wore black san benitos decorated with devils and flames.

The Oreillons: The native tribe that captures Candide and Cacambo in Paraguay. Candide wonders what Pangloss would say upon seeing that the state of nature is just as uncivilized as Europe. Voltaire is mocking Rousseau's assertion that man in the state of nature was a much more humane and civilized individual than modern man.

Eldorado: A utopian kingdom in Peru isolated from the rest of the world. Though Candide supposes that Eldorado might be the best of all possible worlds, Candide and Cacambo decide to leave Eldorado in order to find Cunégonde.

Red Sheep: When Candide and Cacambo leave Eldorado, they saddle one hundred and two of these red pack animals with gold and jewels. Only one sheep survives and Candide donates it to the Academy of Sciences at Bordeaux for scientific study.

Paris: Candide falls ill as soon as he reaches Paris, where he is swindled by a series of con artists.

Venice: Candide and Martin run into Paquette and her lover Friar Giroflée in Venice. This is also where Candide is reunited with Cacambo.

Turkey: In Turkey, Candide buys the freedom of Cunégonde and the old woman, and he also buys a small farm where he settles with Cunégonde, Pangloss, Martin, Cacambo, the old woman, Paquette, and Friar Giroflée.

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