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This test consists of 15 multiple choice questions and 5 short answer questions.

## Multiple Choice Questions

**1. Johannes Kepler used calculus to determine that planets had what, according to the author in Chapter 5, “Infinite Zeros and Infidel Mathematicians”?**
**(a)** Circular movement. **(b)** Movement. **(c)** Circular orbits. **(d)** Elliptical orbits.

**2. Lord Kelvin is well known for determining the correct value of absolute zero. Absolute zero is approximately what temperature Celsius?**
**(a)** -125.32 degrees. **(b)** -59 degrees. **(c)** -32 degrees. **(d)** -273.15 degrees.

**3. When did Sir Isaac Newton live?**
**(a)** 1642-1727. **(b)** 1559-1601. **(c)** 1624-1680. **(d)** 1707-1746.

**4. According to the author in Chapter 7, “Absolute Zeros,” Max Planck came up with a new equation that solved the ultraviolet catastrophe but implied that energy was released in discrete packets that have come to be called what?**
**(a)** Quanta. **(b)** Strings. **(c)** Derivatives. **(d)** Photons.

**5. The Rayleigh–Jeans law agrees with experimental results at large wavelengths but strongly disagrees at short wavelengths. What is this inconsistency known as?**
**(a)** The Golden Ratio. **(b)** A black hole. **(c)** The ultraviolet catastrophe. **(d)** The Pythagorean Theorem.

**6. According to the author in Chapter 7, “Absolute Zeros,” thermodynamics led physicists to believe that light was not a particle but what?**
**(a)** An electron. **(b)** A proton. **(c)** An electromagnetic wave. **(d)** A vibrating string.

**7. When was Lord Kelvin born?**
**(a)** 1898. **(b)** 1915. **(c)** 1798. **(d)** 1824.

**8. What kind of stars did the Hubble space telescope use to measure the size of the universe?**
**(a)** Cepheid stars. **(b)** White dwarfs. **(c)** RR Lyrae stars. **(d)** Hypergiant stars.

**9. The author asserts in Chapter 8, “Zero Hour at Ground Zero” that today astronomers estimate the universe as being how old?**
**(a)** 4 billion years. **(b)** 15 billion years. **(c)** 10 billion years. **(d)** 2 billion years.

**10. An electron has what kind of electric charge?**
**(a)** Degenerative. **(b)** Neutral. **(c)** Positive. **(d)** Negative.

**11. According to the author in Chapter 5, “Infinite Zeros and Infidel Mathematicians,” Leibniz wanted to use infinitesimals in calculus which were termed what?**
**(a)** “ö.” **(b)** “∞.” **(c)** “dx.” **(d)** “mi.”

**12. According to the author in Chapter 6, “Infinity's Twin,” “i” appears whenever one takes the square root of what?**
**(a)** A negative number. **(b)** Infinity. **(c)** Zero. **(d)** A fraction.

**13. What term refers to an elementary particle, the quantum of light and all other forms of electromagnetic radiation?**
**(a)** Nucleus. **(b)** Photon. **(c)** Radon. **(d)** Electron.

**14. The author says in Chapter 6, “Infinity’s Twin” that by employing the concept of infinity, Johannes Kepler showed that ellipses and what were the same?**
**(a)** Parabolas. **(b)** Limits. **(c)** Derivatives. **(d)** Tangents.

**15. What term refers to a physical constant that is the quantum of action in quantum mechanics?**
**(a)** M-Theory. **(b)** The Pythagorean theorem. **(c)** The Planck constant. **(d)** The Golden Ratio.

## Short Answer Questions

**1.** When was Jean le Rond d'Alembert born?

**2.** What term in theoretical physics refers to an extension of string theory in which 11 dimensions of spacetime are identified?

**3.** The author suggests in Chapter 8, “Zero Hour at Ground Zero” that zero might spawn universes through a froth of what?

**4.** The Leibniz–Newton calculus controversy was an argument between Sir Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz over what?

**5.** In physics or chemistry, what term refers to particles that are smaller than an atom?

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