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Name: _________________________ | Period: ___________________ |

This test consists of 15 multiple choice questions and 5 short answer questions.

## Multiple Choice Questions

**1. When was Lord Kelvin born?**
**(a)** 1798. **(b)** 1915. **(c)** 1898. **(d)** 1824.

**2. The operation of finding the area under a curve is now called what, according to the author in Chapter 5, “Infinite Zeros and Infidel Mathematicians”?**
**(a)** Disintegration. **(b)** Differentiation. **(c)** Integration. **(d)** Division.

**3. What kind of stars did the Hubble space telescope use to measure the size of the universe?**
**(a)** White dwarfs. **(b)** Cepheid stars. **(c)** Hypergiant stars. **(d)** RR Lyrae stars.

**4. Where was Carl Gauss from?**
**(a)** Germany. **(b)** Belgium. **(c)** Spain. **(d)** France.

**5. What term refers to numbers that are "infinite" in the sense that they are larger than all finite numbers, yet not necessarily absolutely infinite?**
**(a)** Transfinite numbers. **(b)** Quantitative numbers. **(c)** Pythagorean numbers. **(d)** Derivative numbers.

**6. In Chapter 8, “Zero Hour at Ground Zero,” the author states that the Hubble telescope saw that most galaxies were flying away from one another by using red-shifting and blue-shifting effects, the cosmological equivalent of what?**
**(a)** The radon effect. **(b)** The Heisenberg effect. **(c)** The differential effect. **(d)** The Doppler effect.

**7. What refers to the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1916 and the current description of gravitation in modern physics?**
**(a)** Gravitational theory. **(b)** Special relativity. **(c)** General relativity. **(d)** Microquasar theory.

**8. What refers to an indeterminate polynomial equation that allows the variables to take integer values only?**
**(a)** Differential equation. **(b)** Tangent equation. **(c)** Diophantine equation. **(d)** Derivative equation.

**9. The name “electron” was introduced in 1891 by what Irish physicist?**
**(a)** Sir Isaac Newton. **(b)** Galileo Galilei. **(c)** Albert Einstein. **(d)** George Johnstone Stoney.

**10. According to the author in Chapter 6, “Infinity’s Twin,” geometry shows that mathematically the north and south poles of spheres do what?**
**(a)** Turn into one another. **(b)** Repel one another. **(c)** Pull away from one another. **(d)** Repeat one another.

**11. Georg Cantor is best known as the inventor of what fundamental theory in mathematics?**
**(a)** Quantum theory. **(b)** M-Theory. **(c)** Set theory. **(d)** String theory.

**12. In what year did Albert Einstein publish a paper that explained experimental data from the photoelectric effect, leading to the quantum revolution?**
**(a)** 1942. **(b)** 1918. **(c)** 1926. **(d)** 1905.

**13. What refers to an optical telescope that uses a single or combination of curved mirrors that reflect light and form an image?**
**(a)** An Alhazen’s telescope. **(b)** A reflecting telescope. **(c)** A refracting telescope. **(d)** A chromatic telescope.

**14. What rule in calculus uses derivatives to help evaluate limits involving indeterminate forms?**
**(a)** The Golden Ratio. **(b)** General relativity. **(c)** L'Hôpital's rule. **(d)** The Pythagorean Theorem.

**15. The Rayleigh–Jeans law agrees with experimental results at large wavelengths but strongly disagrees at short wavelengths. What is this inconsistency known as?**
**(a)** The Pythagorean Theorem. **(b)** The Golden Ratio. **(c)** A black hole. **(d)** The ultraviolet catastrophe.

## Short Answer Questions

**1.** When was Jean le Rond d'Alembert born?

**2.** What mathematical term refers to a function that preserves distinctness by never mapping distinct elements of its domain to the same element of its codomain?

**3.** Johannes Kepler used calculus to determine that planets had what, according to the author in Chapter 5, “Infinite Zeros and Infidel Mathematicians”?

**4.** In particle physics, what refers to a proposed symmetry of nature relating two basic classes of elementary particles: bosons and fermions?

**5.** According to the author in Chapter 8, “Zero Hour at Ground Zero,” the universe may collapse under its own gravity or what?

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