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This test consists of 5 short answer questions, 10 short essay questions, and 1 (of 3) essay topics.

## Short Answer Questions

**1.** What did the philosopher Immanuel Kant worry about concerning time and Newton's model?

**2.** Who did Einstein encourage to begin nuclear research?

**3.** What may the universe not have, given quantum mechanics?

**4.** What equation shows mass and energy are equivalent?

**5.** When were strings regarded as insufficient?

## Short Essay Questions

**1.** What new sort of symmetry was discovered in the 1970s?

**2.** What was the bedrock of relativity theory, and what did it imply?

**3.** What is Hawking's view about mathematical models?

**4.** What does the E = mc2 equation show?

**5.** What was considered the foundation of a TOE and why did it go out of fashion?

**6.** What is the no boundary condition, and what does it imply?

**7.** What did Penrose and Hawking's theory have to say about the universe's history?

**8.** What does it mean for stars to be red-shifted or blue-shifted?

**9.** Describe imaginary time.

**10.** Who worked on quantum mechanics in the 1920s, and what discovery was made?

## Essay Topics

Write an essay for ONE of the following topics:

### Essay Topic 1

Describe the history of the equation E = mc2. What is the significance of this equation? Be sure to include a description of the following terms: energy, mass, relativity, and the speed of light.

### Essay Topic 2

Expound on Einstein's involvement, direct or indirect, in WWII. Be sure to discuss the relationship between scientific discovery and practical use. Analyze The Manhattan Project as an example of science and its utilization.

### Essay Topic 3

Discuss the interpretation of General Relativity according to Penrose and Hawking and how this differed from Lifshitz and Khalatnikov. Cite two examples from Chapter Two that expound on Penrose and Hawking's dissimilar interpretation.

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