1. What did Einstein do in 1905 that launched him to the top of the scientific community?
In 1905, Einstein wrote three articles while working in a patent office. These articles were on space, time, and reality, and they helped change people's conceptions of the universe. His work launched him to the pinnacle of the scientific community and paved the way for many others to elaborate on his ideas.
2. What was the "ether" theory?
By the end of the nineteenth century, the general thought concerning ether was that it pervaded space. Ether was considered to be the medium through which waves of light and radio traveled. Scientists believed they could measure ether's elasticity and that this would help them more aptly describe the laws of nature. This theory finally broke apart in 1905 when Einstein penned an article that argued against the idea of ether as a medium.
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