1. What are the responses of Japan and China when Nanking falls, as described by William Kirby in the Foreword?
The fall of Nanking was to be a major turning point in the war for Japan. For the Chinese, fresh from a defeat in Shanghai, it was a bitter defeat.
2. In what way can we now think of Nanking as a different sort of turning point, according to Kirby?
The events in Nanking can be considered a different sort of turning point because it strengthened Chinese resolve; the Chinese government regrouped and formed a more solid determination to retake the city. China was able to outlast Japan for eight years.
3. Japan occupied Nanking for eight years and set up a government of Chinese collaborators. What was that government NOT able to accomplish during those eight years?
Japan may have been able to set up a government in Nanking, but that government was never able to rule with confidence and the legitimacy of that government was never accepted by the Chinese people. In addition, the governing body was unable to force China's surrender though they had eight years in which to do so.
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