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This test consists of 15 multiple choice questions and 5 short answer questions.

## Multiple Choice Questions

**1. What is Popper's goal in researching a theory?**
**(a)** To determine its value. **(b)** To determine if it is a singular statement. **(c)** To determine if it is probable. **(d)** To determine if it is corroborated.

**2. What type of numerical interpretation requires that probabilities be only expressed as frequencies?**
**(a)** Non-empirical. **(b)** Subjective. **(c)** Psychological. **(d)** Objective.

**3. What does Popper feel about an axiom in relations of von Mises view of an axiom of randomness?**
**(a)** It is a weak construct. **(b)** It is self-contradicting. **(c)** It is a powerful construct. **(d)** Mathematical validity is high.

**4. What can be predicted using the statistical scatter principle?**
**(a)** A particle's path. **(b)** A particle's mass. **(c)** A particle's speed. **(d)** A particle's size.

**5. What is used to make laws based on observations?**
**(a)** Theory. **(b)** Simplicity. **(c)** Conventionalism. **(d)** Probability.

**6. How do conventionalists define simplicity?**
**(a)** As a unified practice. **(b)** Unpractical. **(c)** Aesthetic and practical. **(d)** As a means to an end.

**7. What relationships does Popper explore in chapter 8?**
**(a)** Probability and experience. **(b)** Probability and assumptions. **(c)** Probability and simplicity. **(d)** Probability and scientific fact.

**8. What is directly linked to falsification?**
**(a)** Theory. **(b)** Statements. **(c)** Testability. **(d)** Logic.

**9. Who does Popper suggest works in probabilistic logic to determine the probability of a hypothesis?**
**(a)** Inductivists. **(b)** Positivist. **(c)** Conventionalists. **(d)** Metaphysicists.

**10. What theory attempted to eliminate unobservable events?**
**(a)** Einstein's theory of probability. **(b)** Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. **(c)** The Bohr Model. **(d)** Newton's theory of gravity.

**11. If a system is protected what will its degree of falsifiability be equal to?**
**(a)** 1. **(b)** -1. **(c)** 0. **(d)** 2.

**12. What is the most significant factor when selecting a theory?**
**(a)** Previous research. **(b)** Its universality. **(c)** The degree of testability. **(d)** The understandability.

**13. How does Popper explain the differences in his selection process?**
**(a)** Using ordinal numbers. **(b)** Using rational numbers. **(c)** Using discrete categories. **(d)** Using letters.

**14. What involves considering the number of favorable cases divided by the number of possible cases?**
**(a)** Abstract probability. **(b)** Numerical probability. **(c)** Non-numerical probability. **(d)** Concrete probability.

**15. What scientific thought suggests that probability can be regarded as a generalization of the concept of a singular truth?**
**(a)** Naturalism. **(b)** Conventionalism. **(c)** Inductivism. **(d)** Positivism.

## Short Answer Questions

**1.** What theory does Heisenberg begin this investigation with?

**2.** What does Popper eliminate from the common frequency theory by using mathematical and narrative approaches?

**3.** What does Popper assume is a main characteristic of quantum theory formula?

**4.** Why does Popper find Heisenberg's lack of logic and statistical testing disturbing?

**5.** What principle does science presuppose?

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