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This test consists of 15 multiple choice questions and 5 short answer questions.

## Multiple Choice Questions

**1. According to Popper, what philosophy ignores the hypothetical character of statistically derived estimates?**
**(a)** Metaphysics. **(b)** Conventionalism. **(c)** Positivism. **(d)** Inductivism.

**2. What increases with the amount of falsifiability?**
**(a)** The amount of information. **(b)** The opportunity for error. **(c)** The level of research. **(d)** The complexity of a study.

**3. What does Popper note about conventionalists appeal to simplicity?**
**(a)** It could not save them from arbitrariness. **(b)** It cannot be practical. **(c)** There was no logic in it. **(d)** It was too fundamental.

**4. Why does Popper find Heisenberg's lack of logic and statistical testing disturbing?**
**(a)** The theory is metaphysical without these factors. **(b)** The theory is not logical without these factors. **(c)** It lacks scientific validity. **(d)** It lacks original thought.

**5. What is retained by old theories when their success is demonstrated through research?**
**(a)** Determinants. **(b)** Regularities. **(c)** Validity. **(d)** Assumptions.

**6. What is determined by obscuring a logical connection between statistical and non-statistical interpretations, with regard to uncertainty theory?**
**(a)** A logical basis. **(b)** A physical basis. **(c)** A metaphysical basis. **(d)** A mental basis.

**7. Who does Popper feel has been unsuccessful in purging atomic science of metaphysical influences?**
**(a)** Newton. **(b)** Einstein. **(c)** Bohr. **(d)** Heisenberg.

**8. What does Popper eliminate from the common frequency theory by using mathematical and narrative approaches?**
**(a)** Doubt. **(b)** Subjectivity. **(c)** Axioms of convergence. **(d)** Chance.

**9. What principle does science presuppose?**
**(a)** The homogeneity of nature. **(b)** The variability of nature. **(c)** The uniformity of nature. **(d)** The chaos of nature.

**10. What does Popper feel about an axiom in relations of von Mises view of an axiom of randomness?**
**(a)** It is a weak construct. **(b)** It is self-contradicting. **(c)** Mathematical validity is high. **(d)** It is a powerful construct.

**11. What scientific thought suggests that probability can be regarded as a generalization of the concept of a singular truth?**
**(a)** Positivism. **(b)** Naturalism. **(c)** Conventionalism. **(d)** Inductivism.

**12. What theory does Heisenberg begin this investigation with?**
**(a)** Particle theory. **(b)** Wave theory. **(c)** Sound theory. **(d)** Light theory.

**13. What theory does Schrödinger begin this investigation with?**
**(a)** Sound theory. **(b)** Wave theory. **(c)** Light theory. **(d)** Particle theory.

**14. What relationships does Popper explore in chapter 8?**
**(a)** Probability and assumptions. **(b)** Probability and experience. **(c)** Probability and scientific fact. **(d)** Probability and simplicity.

**15. What, according to von Mises, is derived from certain initial probabilities and distributions?**
**(a)** Event sequences. **(b)** Alternatives. **(c)** Normative probabilities. **(d)** Collectives.

## Short Answer Questions

**1.** What does Popper thinks about Wittgenstein, Schlick, and Feigl's thoughts on simplicity as a basic law?

**2.** How does Popper negate positivist notions regarding the meaninglessness of certain scientific statements?

**3.** What involves considering the number of favorable cases divided by the number of possible cases?

**4.** What is considered only if one class includes the other?

**5.** What occurs with non-numerical probability statements when converted into numerical problems?

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