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This test consists of 15 multiple choice questions and 5 short answer questions.
Multiple Choice Questions
1. What was the fare for the electric trolley car in the late 1800s?
(a) Twenty-five cents.
(b) Ten cents.
(c) Five cents.
(d) One cent.
2. What was the original purpose of the El Train?
(a) To relieve massive overcrowding.
(b) To replace the horse and cart.
(c) To improve commute times.
(d) To show off new technology.
3. In 1890, what was the ratio of railroad workers to work-related deaths?
(a) 1 out of 1000.
(b) 1 out of 360.
(c) 1 out of 600.
(d) 1 out of 65.
4. In the era after the Civil War, what was the most dangerous sweatshop activity?
(a) Cotton weaving.
(c) Loom operation.
(d) Tobacco stripping.
5. Where was the El Train introduced?
(b) New York.
6. What area in New York City had an abundance of industrial factories in the early 19th century ?
(a) Hunter's Point.
(b) New York City.
(d) Lower East side.
7. What did overpopulation in the big cities mean for the tenants in the late 1800s?
(a) Families often had to split up.
(b) A lack of food.
(c) Only very small accomodations were available.
(d) A housing shortage.
8. According to Bettmann in "Air," one observer called the worst New York industrial area a:
(a) "Smog City."
(b) "Nasal Disaster."
(c) "Heart of the New Economy."
(d) "Industrial wasteland."
9. In New York after the Civil War, in what area was the greatest contrast between rich and poor seen?
(a) Job security.
(b) Family size.
10. What hours did Steward demand his employees work?
(a) 5:00 a.m. to 7:00 p.m.
(b) 6:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m.
(c) 7:30 a.m. to 9:00 p.m.
(d) 8:00 a.m. to 7:00 p.m.
11. In large cities in the late 1800s, what animals created massive amounts of pollution problems?
(a) Pigs and horses.
(b) Horses and chickens.
(c) Chickens and pigs.
(d) Horses and cows.
12. What was the biggest safety threat in the vertical apartments in the late 1800s?
(b) Unsafe water.
(d) Lead poisoning.
13. Who was A.T. Stewart?
(a) Newspaper mogel.
(b) Railroad tycoon.
(c) Sweatshop owner.
(d) Steel mill owner.
14. Who were most of the shantytown residents in the late 1800s?
(b) People displaced by their landlords.
(d) Newly-arrived immigrants.
15. According to Bettmann in "Rural Life," what frontier necessity was often a cesspool of contamination?
(a) Nearby streams.
(b) The barn.
(c) The local well.
(d) The outhouse.
Short Answer Questions
1. Wind as well as the heat of summer exacerbated what problem in the large cities after the Civil War?
2. The air quality in homes was dangerous in the late 1800s because of:
3. In "Housing," what did Bettmann cite as an additional cause of dangerous air quality in homes?
4. Besides the lung irritation, vomiting, and sickness, what other ailment was common to those exposed to air pollution in the late 1800s?
5. Before cars, what was the main source of transportation in the late 1800s?
This section contains 489 words
(approx. 2 pages at 300 words per page)