The Ethics of Ambiguity; Test | Final Test - Medium

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This test consists of 5 multiple choice questions, 5 short answer questions, and 10 short essay questions.

Multiple Choice Questions

1. How does Beauvoir define the Aesthetic Attitude?
(a) The attitude that freedom can only be willed while being around others.
(b) The objection that man cannot will himself free because the individual is almost always free by being around others.
(c) The objection that only the isolated man is free.
(d) The belief that man can only be free by separating from others.

2. What does Beauvoir suggest of movements whose means of achieving a goal contradicts the goal?
(a) The action will set off a chain of events that will negate the goal.
(b) The whole enterprise sinks into absurdity.
(c) The individual who takes such an approach will become a politician.
(d) The goal and the individual will be disregarded.

3. How will an oppressor use history to justify his oppression, according to Beauvoir?
(a) He will subjectively use the past to justify his power.
(b) He will point out only past actions of his benevolence.
(c) He will create new history to confuse his enemies.
(d) He will negative aspects of history that existed before his power was attained.

4. What does Beauvoir report to be Marx' view of the future?
(a) The future will only begin when the socialist state ends prehistory and begins real history.
(b) The future is organic because it is built on the lives and sacrifices of the past.
(c) The future can only be affected if one accepts the validity of the projects they take as contributing to it.
(d) The future is not stationary because the mind is restless and the struggle for the future never ceases.

5. What comes of the man of action who does not recognize the ambiguity that appears during the pursuit of his goal, according to Beauvoir?
(a) He will lose sight of his goal.
(b) He will fall victim to the oppression he is fighting.
(c) He can become a dictator.
(d) He will lose his ability to evaluate his choices.

Short Answer Questions

1. According to Beauvoir, upon what do politicians rely to sustain their influence over individuals?

2. How does Beauvoir define the present?

3. What does Beauvoir mean when she writes, "...festivals whose role is to stop the movement of transcendence?"

4. Of what does Beauvoir accuse political parties in their effort to control the ambiguity of the human condition?

5. What does Beauvoir claim to be necessary to the desire for the slave to become conscious of his servitude?

Short Essay Questions

1. How does Beauvoir define the Aesthetic Attitude?

2. What is an example that Beauvoir uses to illustrate the "Antinomies of Action"?

3. How does Beauvoir claim that we can best secure our personal freedom?

4. What does Beauvoir claim becomes of those who adopt the Aesthetic Attitude?

5. What is the example of the conservative that Beauvoir uses to illustrate how tyrants will attempt to prevent revolt?

6. How does Beauvoir show that the complexity of the world affects those who are fighting for a cause?

7. What two views of how history affects the future does Beauvoir note?

8. How does Beauvoir characterize the world at the beginning of Section III?

9. How do societies attempt to help individuals hold onto the present according to Beauvoir?

10. How does Beauvoir characterize freedom that is won through denying freedom to others?

(see the answer keys)

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