|Name: _________________________||Period: ___________________|
This test consists of 15 multiple choice questions and 5 short answer questions.
Multiple Choice Questions
1. How does Beauvoir claim that the individual with the Aesthetic Attitude regard his role in history?
(a) He considers his will to remain free to be the driving force of history.
(b) He considers himself outside of time, and does not belong to history.
(c) He considers history to have no affect on his Aesthetic Attitude.
(d) He considers his thoughts to form the existential material of history.
2. What are the two meanings that Beauvoir gives to the word future.
(a) Future is that which is yet to come, but is the substance of all projects.
(b) Future is both a speculation and a target.
(c) It is the ambiguous condition of man which is lack of being as well as man's existence.
(d) The future is never here, but man is always moving toward it.
3. What example did Beauvoir use to show how those who fight for a cause will come to accept certain contradictions.
(a) Politicians who were defeated in elections by foretelling the realized negative consequences of popular programs.
(b) Martyrs who were killed by authoritarians who sought to kill their causes, but their deaths gave it more influence.
(c) Generals who were willing to pull their soldiers from battle so they could win a more important battle later.
(d) Natives who fought freedom from the British Empire during WWII with the support of Fascist regimes.
4. How does Beauvoir explain that technics (technology) is not objectively justified?
(a) Technics makes the absolute goal of saving time and work of life, but life only gains meaning when time and work are spent.
(b) Technics too often aims at expanding freedom, but ends up causing individuals to be absorbed into the seriousness of projects.
(c) Technics depends on science for its gains, but science only has purpose when it can transcend time.
(d) Technics can have significant benefit for projects in the present, but too often it fuels the desire to accept the Aesthetic Attitude.
5. What are the two clans that Beauvoir claims to come from oppression?
(a) The oppressors and the oppressed.
(b) Those who believe their status allows them the freedom to oppress and those whose freedom is taken for the benefit of those of status.
(c) Those who enlighten mankind by thrusting it ahead of itself, and those who are condemned to mark time hopelessly.
(d) Those who escape into their aesthetic only to allow their oppressive ideas to penetrate reality and subject the freedom of others to mechanically toil to satisfy their needs.
6. How does Beauvoir claim a goal is defined?
(a) It is defined by its transcendence.
(b) It is defined along the road which leads to it.
(c) It is defined by the motivations of those who form the goal.
(d) It is defined by the benefits it provides to those who seek it.
7. How will an oppressor use history to justify his oppression, according to Beauvoir?
(a) He will negative aspects of history that existed before his power was attained.
(b) He will point out only past actions of his benevolence.
(c) He will create new history to confuse his enemies.
(d) He will subjectively use the past to justify his power.
8. What does Beauvoir recognize as the paradox that faces a man who is willing to fight for a valid cause?
(a) No action can be generated for man without its being immediately generated against men.
(b) The only way a man can make an important gain is to sacrifice something equally important.
(c) Man can only assure better life by causing death to those who would destroy it.
(d) Only sacrifice can lead to achievement.
9. When an individual aims at a goal that will be achieved beyond his own death, what does Beauvoir claim the individual should expect from the time given to the goal?
(a) The individual should expect a festival be given in his honor.
(b) The individual should expect his virtues to be challenged through his effort.
(c) The individual should not expect anything of that time for which he worked.
(d) The individual should expect those who share his vision accept his means.
10. How do ethics of ambiguity avoid being solipsistic?
(a) Because the means of an end often affect more individual than the achievement of the end itself.
(b) Because goals often transcend the life of the individual who initiates them.
(c) Because it demands that individuals engage matter in the pursuit of projects.
(d) By the fact that the individual is defined only by his relationship to the world and other individuals.
11. What are projects according to Beauvoir?
(a) Activities which define history.
(b) Activities in which an individual works to affect others.
(c) Activities in which the individual sacrifices freedom for achievement.
(d) Activities in which the individual works toward a goal.
12. If an individual does not inform a slave of his oppression, what does Beauvoir suggest of their position regarding tyranny?
(a) The individual who remains silent regarding tyranny loses his will to be free.
(b) The individual who remains silent regarding tyranny assumes the Aesthetic Attitude.
(c) The individual who remains silent regarding tyranny becomes a tyrant himself.
(d) The individual who remains silent regarding tyranny is complicit in tyranny.
13. How does Beauvoir suggest violent action against oppression becomes a contradiction to the cause of freedom?
(a) Because conquering enemies requires reducing the enemies to things and those who fight oppression must reduce themselves to things as well.
(b) Because those who see oppressors as being beneficial will believe they fight for freedom in defense of an oppressor.
(c) Because those who fight oppression must oppress those who fight with them to command the battle.
(d) Because those who fight oppression generally desire the power of those they attempt to overthrow.
14. How does Beauvoir illustrate her example proves her point that, "festivals stop the movement of transcendence?"
(a) Christians allow the influences of pagan observances to obscure the principles of the Bible.
(b) Pagans who adopt Christian labels for the celebrations are starting the process of renouncing their paganism.
(c) The festival regarding the liberation of Paris allowed people to temporarily ignore the coming difficulties that were to come to their post-war society.
(d) Throughout history empires leave the discipline that made their systems transcendent for the pleasures found during festivals.
15. How does Beauvoir claim an individual can prevent life from being defined as an escape toward nothingness?
(a) Impossible or utopian goals must not be set.
(b) All goals must consider the ambiguity of all life.
(c) Existence must be asserted in the present.
(d) Projects must be taken in consideration of their consequences.
Short Answer Questions
1. Why does Beauvoir suggest that the idea of the ambiguity of existence should not be considered absurd?
2. What comes of the man of action who does not recognize the ambiguity that appears during the pursuit of his goal, according to Beauvoir?
3. What quote from Saint-Just does Beauvoir use to point out the paradox to the fight for freedom?
4. What is the paradox that Beauvoir identifies in the fight against oppression?
5. Upon what does Beauvoir claim existence is based?
This section contains 1,307 words
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