The Ethics of Ambiguity; Test | Mid-Book Test - Easy

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This test consists of 15 multiple choice questions and 5 short answer questions.

Multiple Choice Questions

1. What quote from Lenin does Beauvoir use to demonstrate the Marxist revolution has human meaning?
(a) "I call any action useful to the party moral action; I call it immoral if it is harmful to the party."
(b) "The entire purpose of training, educating and teaching the youth of today should be to imbue them with communist ethics."
(c) "Our action only has meaning if it brings down the influence of the bourgeois."
(d) "We say that our morality is entirely subordinated to the interests of the proletariat's class struggle."

2. What explanation does Beauvoir give to assert that existentialist thought helps to build community.
(a) Beauvoir asserts, "Despite their disparate views, existentialists easily welcome any detractor because they only see them as creations of their own minds."
(b) Beauvoir asserts, "Existentialists are more often inviting of debate since they do not consider any idea as wrong because they accept no idea as right."
(c) Beauvoir asserts, "Existentialists, with their dogmatic adherence to solipsism, help to rally a wide range of theorists to disprove their irrationality."
(d) Beauvoir asserts, "...existentialism,...(is) the plurality of concrete particular men projecting themselves toward their ends on the basis of situations whose particularity is as radical and irreducible as subjectivity.

3. How does Beauvoir consider stubbornness in the face of an obstacle that is impossible to overcome?
(a) As the beginning of innovation.
(b) As the seed of innocent hope.
(c) As stupidity.
(d) As that trial that brings experience.

4. How does Beauvoir explain that Marxists perceive that acts can be regarded as good or bad?
(a) Only when systems are formed in which each gives according to his ability.
(b) Only through the destruction of private property.
(c) Only when systems are designed that each takes according to his need.
(d) Through the revolt of a class which define aims and goals from a which a new state appears as desirable.

5. At what time does Beauvoir suggest that children begin to notice the contradictions, hesitations and weaknesses of adults?
(a) The age of accountability.
(b) Adolescence.
(c) At the time the become interested in the opposite sex.
(d) When they begin to see how their actions affect the world around them.

6. How does Beauvoir explain how goals supplant freedom in the life of the serious man?
(a) Goals become the means of defining the existence of the serious man at the cost of freedom and individually defining his ethics.
(b) The serious man is defined by his goal not by his choices or acts.
(c) The serious man rejects all independent thought for the sake of achieving his goal.
(d) Rather than finding freedom in choosing goals, the serious man chooses goals to avoid his freedom.

7. What does Beauvoir claim defines the "sub-man"?
(a) The man who avoids choice and lives a lack of being.
(b) The man who rejects the passion of his human condition and lives according to the world than has been established before him.
(c) The man whose lack of being is defined by his choice.
(d) The man who lives below the potential of his abilities because of choice.

8. What does Beauvoir report to the the qualities of God that establishes moral standards?
(a) A moral code given from God removes the demands from human minds to create one.
(b) A God can pardon, efface and compensate.
(c) A moral code from God constricts believers to live within boundaries.
(d) A moral code from God contributes to establishing a moral consensus that directs thought.

9. What is a principle that Beauvoir states that an ethics of ambiguity will refuse to deny a priori?
(a) That the most important element of "ethics of ambiguity" is to disallow them from defining the conduct of those outside their understanding.
(b) That separate existants can be bound to each other, such as individual freedoms can forge laws valid for all.
(c) That "ethics of ambiguity" are as solipsistic as is existentialism.
(d) That, by definition, "ethics of ambiguity" must remained undefined.

10. How does Beauvoir show how her example of moving through obstacles prove her arguments?
(a) She explained that Sisyphus was condemned to rolling the boulder up the mountain despite his the fact that it would roll back down once he got it to the top.
(b) She pointed out that Hitler had desires to rule the world in spite of the fact that he did not have the ability to take his navy outside of the North Sea.
(c) She explained that Adalai Stevenson believed his intellectualism would over come Dwight Eisenhower's popular reputation in two presidential elections.
(d) She asserted that Van Gogh, despite being institutionalized, integrated his his past as a painter and continued to communicate through his talent.

11. To what does Beauvoir compare the "sub-man"?
(a) An unpublished writer.
(b) A dull book.
(c) A common laborer.
(d) A bad painter.

12. In what way does Beauvoir consider nihilistic thinking to be right?
(a) In understanding the future will be marked by violence.
(b) In thinking that the world possesses no justification and that he himself is nothing.
(c) In realizing that peace is punctuated by oppression and revolution.
(d) In understanding the obstacles that come from a complex world.

13. What comes to the individual at the point he begins to notice the conflicts of the adult world, according to Beauvoir?
(a) The individual can pursue freedom or seriousness.
(b) The individual has the choice of holding to existentialist myths or accepting his ambiguity.
(c) The individual must at last assume his subjectivity.
(d) The individual faces the daunting challenge of pursuing ethics that have none of the inconsistencies that have plagued societies through history.

14. How does Beauvoir compare Marxism to existentialism?
(a) Marxism rejects the idea of inhuman objectivity and locates itself in the tradition of Kant and Hegel.
(b) Marxism establishes moral thought through mass rejection of the moral order.
(c) Marxism rejects the moral foundations of law that are rooted in the protection of public property.
(d) Marxism rejects the idea of authority in the development of organized masses.

15. At what point does Beauvoir claim an individual has the ability to decide and choose?
(a) When he can see and manipulate the affects of spontaneous acts on the physical world.
(b) When the usefulness of spontaneous acts are identifiable by the individual.
(c) When the moments of his life begin to be organized into behavior.
(d) When he responds to the consequences of spontaneous acts.

Short Answer Questions

1. How does Beauvoir identify dualism?

2. What does Beauvoir identify as the certain truth contained in the nihilist attitude?

3. In what way does Beauvoir suggest Marxists practice free will?

4. What does Beauvoir indicate can sometimes happen when there is a failure of the serious?

5. Beauvoir claims that dualists use their basic belief to establish what idea?

(see the answer keys)

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