The Discourses Test | Mid-Book Test - Easy

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This test consists of 15 multiple choice questions and 5 short answer questions.

Multiple Choice Questions

1. What were the reasons that Machiavelli cited for the Roman Senate choosing to pay a public stipend to fighting men (soldiers)?
(a) To increase the number of soldiers in the army.
(b) To keep the citizens in poverty so they would support wars.
(c) Because without the stipend, wars could not be made for any length of time, neither could Rome besiege towns nor lead armies to a distance.
(d) To hide the increased taxes that were used to build houses for Nobles.

2. What was a rival Empire to Rome as Rome began its expansion?
(a) The Egyptians.
(b) The Spartans.
(c) The Babylonians.
(d) The Carthaginians.

3. In Book 1, Section 37, what does Machiavelli claim to be the foundation of well-ordered Republics?
(a) They keep the public [State] rich and its Citizens poor.
(b) They keep the Citizens rich and the public poor.
(c) They keep the public and the Citizens poor.
(d) They keep the public and the Citizens rich.

4. What can be inferred of Machiavelli's idea of virtue from reading the review of the first three kings of Rome as he begins his discourse of weak Princes and excellent Princes?
(a) That he believes being ferocious and warlike is an indispensible virtue for a Prince.
(b) The he considers moral integrity to be the primary virtue for Princes.
(c) That he considers the most weak Princes to practice ambivalence to virtue.
(d) That he considers bureaucratic expertise to be an important virtue for Princes.

5. How does Machiavelli recommend a Republic deal with enemies that spring up within an empire?
(a) He advocates smearing them with public proclamations about the threat they pose.
(b) He advises Princes to allow his supporters to conspire to assassinate the enemies.
(c) He recommends that efforts be made to temporize (compromise) them rather than crush them.
(d) Princes should name appoint them to offices to leave their actions open to public scrutiny.

6. Why does Machiavelli recommend that those who want to reform a city should retain the appearance of the institutions they want to reform?
(a) Because keeping the appearance of those institutions assures a smooth transition of power.
(b) Because keeping the appearance of those institutions helps to keep important advisers within the circle of government.
(c) Because the general masses are satisfied with appearances and are moved by things as they appear rather than by the way they operate (perception is reality).
(d) Because keeping the appearance of those institutions helps to hide the true agenda of the Prince.

7. What was an example from Roman history that Machiavelli used to suggest the Plebes possesses greater wisdom than Nobles?
(a) The Magistrates decision to delay battle against the Samnites.
(b) The willingness of the Plebes to go to war for the glory of Rome.
(c) A time when the Plebes could have chosen all Plebes for four Tribunes, chose, instead, four Nobles because they recognized the weaknesses of Plebes filling those offices.
(d) The failed attempt of the Nobles to put Plebes of ill-repute to selection for Tribunes.

8. What are the five types of government identified by Machiavelli?
(a) Republic, fascistic, democracy, principality, and oligarchy.
(b) Monarchy, aristocracy, democracy, oligarchy, and anarchy.
(c) Tyranny, constitutional, military oligarchy, principality, and democracy.
(d) Democracy, anarchy, monarchy, constitutional, and institutional.

9. What was the inspiration for Machiavelli's "The Discourses"?
(a) Machiavelli's fascination for power.
(b) Machiavelli's interest in forms of government.
(c) Machiavelli's desire to guide politicians to serve the public needs.
(d) Livy's account of the history of Rome written around 25 B.C.

10. What is another method that Machiavelli reports leaders use to offend their citizens?
(a) Refusing to provide wealth to the general masses.
(b) Persisting in harsh punishments for misdemeanors.
(c) Persisting in acts that are considered offensive to citizens.
(d) Refusing to provide sufficient education for the youth.

11. What does Machiavelli believe inspired the expansion of the Roman Empire?
(a) Aggression and murder.
(b) Virtue.
(c) Keeping Citizens in poverty.
(d) Harsh Captains guiding the military.

12. Considering Machiavelli's praise for the example of how Nobles manipulated the opportunity for Plebes to select their peers for positions of influence, who is the clear intended audience of "The Discourses"?
(a) Future candidates for election who need to know how to win.
(b) Those who are concerned with how the Republic is being manipulated by people with power.
(c) Plebes who need to know the tactics of Nobles to control them.
(d) Nobles seeking methods to keep their power.

13. What are reasons Machiavelli cited for a group of people leaving their native country to seek a new home?
(a) Overcrowding and social unrest.
(b) Pestilence, famine or war.
(c) Family strife and lack of work.
(d) Racial conflict and economic injustice.

14. To what does Machiavelli compare great kingdoms and republics from history?
(a) To his ideal state that combined the most successful institutions from those civilizations.
(b) To great works of antique art that have been found and preserved.
(c) To the state of political instability in which was common to Machiavelli's day.
(d) To his projections of the future in which Machiavelli speculated on how power would be preserved.

15. According to Machiavelli, what caused so much hard work for Rome as it expanded its Empire to distant provinces?
(a) The love of people of other lands for liberty.
(b) The cost of sending the military to distant provinces.
(c) The damage to families who sent their working sons to war.
(d) The demands on farmers to provide the food for soldiers on long trips.

Short Answer Questions

1. What does Machiavelli consider an important tool in maintaining the order of a Republic?

2. What are the three ways a Republic can expand that Machiavelli recognized?

3. What did Machiavelli cite as the method that Rome used to maintain its freedom?

4. What did Machiavelli suggest is the advantage of settling in areas that were "sterile" (barren)?

5. What does Machiavelli examine in Chapter 1 of Book 2?

(see the answer keys)

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