The Discourses Test | Mid-Book Test - Easy

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This test consists of 15 multiple choice questions and 5 short answer questions.

Multiple Choice Questions

1. What does Machiavelli believe inspired the expansion of the Roman Empire?
(a) Virtue.
(b) Harsh Captains guiding the military.
(c) Keeping Citizens in poverty.
(d) Aggression and murder.

2. What does Machiavelli examine in Chapter 1 of Book 2?
(a) Whether the Roman Empire was built upon fortune or virtue.
(b) How virtue can destroy fortune.
(c) Why fortune is more important that virtue.
(d) How to develop fortune and virtue.

3. What is another method that Machiavelli reports leaders use to offend their citizens?
(a) Persisting in harsh punishments for misdemeanors.
(b) Persisting in acts that are considered offensive to citizens.
(c) Refusing to provide sufficient education for the youth.
(d) Refusing to provide wealth to the general masses.

4. How does Machiavelli suggest that a man with power should present himself to a city in turmoil?
(a) "Beauty is power; a smile is its sword."
(b) "...(W)ith as much grace and as honorably as he can, attiring himself with the insignia of his rank which he holds in order to make himself more revered."
(c) "The man of power should present himself with cold ruthlessness and avoid any show of sentimentality."
(d) "Arbitrary power is most easily established on the ruins of liberty abused to licentiousness."

5. What does Machiavelli consider to be the means of someone rising from the bottom to gain a great fortune?
(a) Hard work and creativity.
(b) Force and fraud.
(c) Deceit and self preservation.
(d) Diligence and humility.

6. What do fertile areas offer to those who settle there according to Machiavelli?
(a) Resources that will sustain a growing population.
(b) The ability to affect the economy of sterile areas.
(c) Raw materials that can be sent to sterile areas for manufacturing and refinement.
(d) The means by which a city can grow and have the ability to defend themselves.

7. What does Machiavelli believe to the nature of men that causes them to either fight from ambition or from necessity?
(a) Men that choose to fight always fight for personal benefit.
(b) They fight so they can have the power to deliver liberty to themselves and the City.
(c) They are able to desire everything but are not able to attain everything.
(d) Men that choose to fight always fight for the glory of the City.

8. What does Machiavelli recommend to a City that is unable to defend itself, but wants to be protected from anyone who would attack it?
(a) Train its citizens to form a strong army.
(b) To give itself freely to whomever would defend the city.
(c) Hire mercenaries.
(d) Make alliances with powerful Cities.

9. Of what should Princes be most ashamed in Machiavelli's view?
(a) Lacking their own soldiers for defense and offense.
(b) Missing opportunities to conquer other cities.
(c) Being discovered to be self-absorbed and not devoted to building the strength of their cities.
(d) Consuming his wealth in debauchery.

10. Considering Machiavelli's praise for the example of how Nobles manipulated the opportunity for Plebes to select their peers for positions of influence, who is the clear intended audience of "The Discourses"?
(a) Future candidates for election who need to know how to win.
(b) Nobles seeking methods to keep their power.
(c) Those who are concerned with how the Republic is being manipulated by people with power.
(d) Plebes who need to know the tactics of Nobles to control them.

11. How long did Sparta peacefully exist without changing its laws, according to Machiavelli?
(a) Through the reign of Lycurgus.
(b) Until its domination by Rome.
(c) 350 years.
(d) 800 years.

12. According to Machiavelli, how did the Nobles of Rome attempt to correct the limit on the wealth that was placed on them by Agrarian Laws?
(a) The Nobles took political control over the Senate and changed the laws to allow Nobles to control all the land of the Empire.
(b) They reduced taxes on themselves and used their increased wealth to buy back their land.
(c) Rome would send out armies to colonize lands that were then distributed to Nobles.
(d) They raised taxes on Plebes who used the land awarded to them by the Agrarian Laws.

13. Why does Machiavelli suggest that those who have received great rewards should not be spared punishments for acting badly?
(a) Because doing so keeps the most famous citizens obedient to the Prince.
(b) Because doing so helps to find the most ardent supporters of the Prince.
(c) Because doing so helps the Republic remain free for a long time.
(d) Because doing so gives the Prince the opportunity to prove his harshness.

14. According to Machiavelli, what caused the Roman Republic to form?
(a) Political rivalries between powerful generals.
(b) Economic agreements between fertile cities.
(c) Trade agreements between cities with resources and cities with technologies.
(d) Class warfare between the patricians and the plebes.

15. What, according to Machiavelli in Book , 1 Section 38, is the fate of irresolute Republics?
(a) They cannot settle conflicts except with force because their weakness prevents them from resolving doubts over issues.
(b) They have no alternative but to join alliances with powerful Republics that will take control of them.
(c) They face invasion, destruction and anhilation.
(d) They will eventually fade away and reemerge as a tyranny.

Short Answer Questions

1. According to Machiavelli in Section 1 of Book One, who are the two types of people who build cities?

2. What should the reader consider as evil when Machiavelli is advising Princes to "recognize evils".

3. What did Machiavelli establish as the cycle of governing forms?

4. What are the three ways a Republic can expand that Machiavelli recognized?

5. What was the inspiration for Machiavelli's "The Discourses"?

(see the answer keys)

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