|Name: _________________________||Period: ___________________|
This test consists of 5 short answer questions, 10 short essay questions, and 1 (of 3) essay topics.
Short Answer Questions
1. The ________, who had been leaders in experimental physics during the seventeenth century, continued to hold a prominent place until their order was suppressed in 1773.
2. From ________'s law of falling bodies, it was known that the heights would be proportional to the squares of the velocities at impact.
3. By what name did natural philosophers want to be known as, according to the narrator in Chapter 1?
4. Who was the extraordinary philosopher whose life and career exemplified many aspects of the Enlightenment, although he was not especially prominent as a natural philosopher nor was he the main protagonist in the vis viva controversy?
5. The narrator reveals that vis viva was a measure of ________ to conserve his creation while "action" was a measure of his efficiency.
Short Essay Questions
1. Explain why Newton's laws were not adequate to deal with all of the mechanical phenomena studied during the Enlightenment.
2. Discuss the electrical experiments of Benjamin Franklin, Stephen Gray and Abbe Jean Antoine Nollet.
3. Discuss the origin of the study of electricity.
4. Discuss the study of physics in the beginning of the Enlightenment.
5. Who coined the term "Scientific Revolution" and who was this person? What was the Scientific Revolution?
6. Explain how mathematics and mechanics advanced through the study of curves.
7. What was the meaning of experimental physics at the end of the Enlightenment? Why is important that the meaning of experimental physics had changed?
8. Discuss Fontenelle's tie to science and literature as discussed in Chapter 1.
9. Discuss how nature and reason tied into the Enlightenment.
10. What prompted the versions of the mechanical philosophy in the seventeenth century? Give an example.
Write an essay for ONE of the following topics:
Essay Topic 1
Describe in great detail Montesquieu's Spirit of the Laws. Do you support Montesquieu's proposition? Why or why not?
Essay Topic 2
Explain the early history of electricity as detailed in Chapter 3 of "Science and the Enlightenment."
Essay Topic 3
Discuss natural history's impact on the field of physiology as detailed in Chapter 5 of "Science and the Enlightenment."
This section contains 820 words
(approx. 3 pages at 300 words per page)