Science and the Enlightenment Test | Mid-Book Test - Hard

Thomas L. Hankins
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This test consists of 5 short answer questions, 10 short essay questions, and 1 (of 3) essay topics.

Short Answer Questions

1. In 1819, who gave a clue to the source of this pessimism when he wrote that "the power of our analysis is practically exhausted"?

2. ________, working with the knowledge of latent heat, realized that a big difference in heat could be obtained with a small difference in temperature, if one compared water and ice.

3. What area of study in the Middle Ages had been the domain of those truths that could be found through the use of reason alone without the revelation of the Bible?

4. Chapter 2 states that ________ had been created to deal with the problem of motion and that the new mathematical techniques discovered in the eighteenth century were all responses to the challenges of mechanics.

5. Chapter 2 reveals that Leibniz wrote the "second difference" in calculus as ________.

Short Essay Questions

1. Discuss Christian Wolff's book "Generally useful researches for attaining to a more exact knowledge of nature and the arts."

2. Who was William Herschel and what planet did he discover?

3. Discuss the ideology of the Enlightenment on natural philosophers. Who was France's main natural philosopher? Explain.

4. Who coined the term "Scientific Revolution" and who was this person? What was the Scientific Revolution?

5. Briefly discuss the origin of subtle fluid as discuss in Chapter 3 of "Science and the Enlightenment."

6. Discuss the study of physics in the beginning of the Enlightenment.

7. Discuss the electrical experiments of Benjamin Franklin, Stephen Gray and Abbe Jean Antoine Nollet.

8. Discuss the two concepts that were studied in rational mechanics during the Enlightenment.

9. What was the meaning of experimental physics at the end of the Enlightenment? Why is important that the meaning of experimental physics had changed?

10. Discuss Fontenelle's tie to science and literature as discussed in Chapter 1.

Essay Topics

Write an essay for ONE of the following topics:

Essay Topic 1

Thoroughly explain why Newton was so important to the Enlightenment.

Essay Topic 2

Identify, analyze, and discuss the three tests of Universal Gravitation.

Essay Topic 3

Identify, analyze, and discuss the two sensational new discoveries in generation that coincided with the change in physiological theories as detailed in Chapter 5 of "Science and the Enlightenment."

(see the answer keys)

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