Science and the Enlightenment Test | Mid-Book Test - Hard

Thomas L. Hankins
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This test consists of 5 short answer questions, 10 short essay questions, and 1 (of 3) essay topics.

Short Answer Questions

1. Contemporary chemistry recognized only one element in the gaseous state, and that was the element _______.

2. Who became the leading literary figure of the Enlightenment and in 1734 published "Philosophical Letters"?

3. The concept of a ________ was a necessary step in the process of quantification, according to the narrator in Chapter 3.

4. ________, working with the knowledge of latent heat, realized that a big difference in heat could be obtained with a small difference in temperature, if one compared water and ice.

5. Who carried rational mechanics to the highest point of generality and abstraction that it was to reach during the Enlightenment?

Short Essay Questions

1. Discuss the ideology of the Enlightenment on natural philosophers. Who was France's main natural philosopher? Explain.

2. Discuss the electrical experiments of Benjamin Franklin, Stephen Gray and Abbe Jean Antoine Nollet.

3. Discuss the periodic fluctuation Bradley found in 1748.

4. What were the two necessary ingredients for the improvement of astronomical tables? Explain.

5. Discuss Charles Francois de Cisternai Dufay and his impact in electrical science.

6. Discuss how nature and reason tied into the Enlightenment.

7. Discuss the study of physics in the beginning of the Enlightenment.

8. Discuss Benjamin Franklin's single static electrical atmosphere.

9. Who redefined physics in the 1720s? Explain.

10. Discuss the two concepts that were studied in rational mechanics during the Enlightenment.

Essay Topics

Write an essay for ONE of the following topics:

Essay Topic 1

Compare and contrast the mechanical and vital explanations of natural phenomena, especially motion.

Essay Topic 2

Compare and contrast "reason" vs. "nature" as discussed in Chapter 1 of "Science and the Enlightenment."

Essay Topic 3

Analyze and discuss the impact the Encyclopedie had on the moral sciences and on the Enlightenment as a whole.

(see the answer keys)

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