Science and the Enlightenment Test | Mid-Book Test - Hard

Thomas L. Hankins
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This test consists of 5 short answer questions, 10 short essay questions, and 1 (of 3) essay topics.

Short Answer Questions

1. Throughout the Enlightenment, reason was usually extolled in the same breath with ________, the other key word of the Enlightenment.

2. What was the name of the problem of finding the shape of a surface of maximum area for a perimeter of given length as found in Chapter 2?

3. According to Chapter 2, for Newton, ________ consisted in "making experiments and observations and in drawing general Conclusion from them by Induction."

4. What was the name of the curve traced by the end of a string as it is unwrapped from another curve found in Chapter 2?

5. Of all the subtle fluids conceived of during the Enlightenment, the ________ was the one that caused the most excitement and attracted the most researchers.

Short Essay Questions

1. Discuss Benjamin Franklin's single static electrical atmosphere.

2. Briefly discuss the origin of subtle fluid as discuss in Chapter 3 of "Science and the Enlightenment."

3. Why was income important to scientists during the Enlightenment period?

4. What did Leibniz argue in regards to the mechanical philosophy of the Enlightenment?

5. Discuss Christian Wolff's book "Generally useful researches for attaining to a more exact knowledge of nature and the arts."

6. Who was William Herschel and what planet did he discover?

7. Discuss the study of physics in the beginning of the Enlightenment.

8. What were the proponents of blunt rods which where used in the study of electricity? Who led the proponents of blunt rods? Explain.

9. What prompted the versions of the mechanical philosophy in the seventeenth century? Give an example.

10. Discuss the electrical experiments of Benjamin Franklin, Stephen Gray and Abbe Jean Antoine Nollet.

Essay Topics

Write an essay for ONE of the following topics:

Essay Topic 1

Analyze and discuss the impact the Encyclopedie had on the moral sciences and on the Enlightenment as a whole.

Essay Topic 2

Describe in great detail Montesquieu's Spirit of the Laws. Do you support Montesquieu's proposition? Why or why not?

Essay Topic 3

Identify, analyze, and discuss the three tests of Universal Gravitation.

(see the answer keys)

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