Science and the Enlightenment Test | Mid-Book Test - Hard

Thomas L. Hankins
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This test consists of 5 short answer questions, 10 short essay questions, and 1 (of 3) essay topics.

Short Answer Questions

1. Newton had not made it clear whether the forces acting between the planets and between the parts of matter acted at a distance or through some intervening medium called a(n) ________.

2. Who became the leading literary figure of the Enlightenment and in 1734 published "Philosophical Letters"?

3. According to Chapter 3, ________ was the most volatile and least substantial of all the elements; therefore, it was the chief agent of change, as witnessed by its role in combustion, fermentation, decomposition, and evaporation.

4. In Chapter 3, what was the name of the experimental tradition began in Western Europe during the Renaissance?

5. Chapter 1 states that the "geometric spirit" noted by ________ ensured that the same progress would occur in our knowledge about nature.

Short Essay Questions

1. Discuss the origin of the study of electricity.

2. Discuss Benjamin Franklin's single static electrical atmosphere.

3. Explain how the laws of nature were to be discovered by experimentation and observation.

4. What were the proponents of blunt rods which where used in the study of electricity? Who led the proponents of blunt rods? Explain.

5. Discuss the study of physics in the beginning of the Enlightenment.

6. Briefly explain the major philosopher of method in France in the eighteenth century.

7. What did the French call the eighteenth century? Explain.

8. Explain why Newton's laws were not adequate to deal with all of the mechanical phenomena studied during the Enlightenment.

9. What prompted the versions of the mechanical philosophy in the seventeenth century? Give an example.

10. Who coined the term "Scientific Revolution" and who was this person? What was the Scientific Revolution?

Essay Topics

Write an essay for ONE of the following topics:

Essay Topic 1

Explain how subtle fluids effect electricity as discussed in Chapter 3 of "Science and the Enlightenment."

Essay Topic 2

Identify, analyze, and discuss the perspective in which "Science and the Enlightenment" was written.

Essay Topic 3

Analyze and discuss the impact the Encyclopedie had on the moral sciences and on the Enlightenment as a whole.

(see the answer keys)

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