|Name: _________________________||Period: ___________________|
This test consists of 5 short answer questions, 10 short essay questions, and 1 (of 3) essay topics.
Short Answer Questions
1. Newton had not made it clear whether the forces acting between the planets and between the parts of matter acted at a distance or through some intervening medium called a(n) ________.
2. What was the name of the philosopher who carried out the following experiments: kite, electric spider, and lightning bells to study electricity?
3. Who coined the expression "Scientific Revolution," according to the narrator in Chapter 1?
4. Who became the leading literary figure of the Enlightenment and in 1734 published "Philosophical Letters"?
5. According to Chapter 3, ________ was the most volatile and least substantial of all the elements; therefore, it was the chief agent of change, as witnessed by its role in combustion, fermentation, decomposition, and evaporation.
Short Essay Questions
1. Discuss Christian Wolff's book "Generally useful researches for attaining to a more exact knowledge of nature and the arts."
2. Explain how the laws of nature were to be discovered by experimentation and observation.
3. Discuss the ideology of the Enlightenment on natural philosophers. Who was France's main natural philosopher? Explain.
4. Discuss how nature and reason tied into the Enlightenment.
5. Discuss the two concepts that were studied in rational mechanics during the Enlightenment.
6. Explain how mathematics and mechanics advanced through the study of curves.
7. Discuss the product of the Philosophical Letters.
8. Who was William Herschel and what planet did he discover?
9. What advantage did natural philosophy have over other literary pursuits? Explain.
10. What prompted the versions of the mechanical philosophy in the seventeenth century? Give an example.
Write an essay for ONE of the following topics:
Essay Topic 1
Analyze and discuss the impact the Encyclopedie had on the moral sciences and on the Enlightenment as a whole.
Essay Topic 2
Describe in great detail Montesquieu's Spirit of the Laws. Do you support Montesquieu's proposition? Why or why not?
Essay Topic 3
Analyze and discuss the Chemical Revolution as detailed in "Science and the Enlightenment."
This section contains 770 words
(approx. 3 pages at 300 words per page)