Science and the Enlightenment Test | Final Test - Medium

Thomas L. Hankins
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This test consists of 5 multiple choice questions, 5 short answer questions, and 10 short essay questions.

Multiple Choice Questions

1. The Berlin Academy of Sciences was founded in 1700 but achieved little until it was reorganized in 1743 on the Parisian model by ________.
(a) Frederick the Great.
(b) Vladimir Lenin.
(c) Walt Whitman.
(d) Cassius Clay.

2. In 1728, what was the name of the English Quaker who published in London a two-volume "Cyclopaedia" or universal dictionary of the arts and sciences?
(a) Bacon.
(b) Condorcet.
(c) Persia.
(d) Chambers.

3. The narrator explains in Chapter 4 that the most popular textbooks in France during the first half of the eighteenth century were those of ________ and ________.
(a) Cullen / Black.
(b) Stahl / Marggraf / Rouelle.
(c) Roi / Lavoisier.
(d) Boerhaave / Lemery.

4. In February 1744, ________, master apothecary to the French Army, published an article on the red precipitate of mercury "per se" in "Observations sur la physique, sur l'histoire naturelle, et sur les arts."
(a) Bayen.
(b) Lavoisier.
(c) Turgot.
(d) Macquer.

5. Chapter 6 explains that ________ created the first stirrings of Romanticism.
(a) Darwin.
(b) Newton.
(c) Rousseau.
(d) Bayle.

Short Answer Questions

1. The mathematical study of probability had begun in 1654 in a correspondence between ________ and ________.

2. The following were the three primary kinds of government Montesquieu distinguished between in Chapter 6 except for which one?

3. Who confirmed Reaumur's experiments, did others on the digestive action of saliva, and performed the experiments on himself?

4. Who concluded in Chapter 6 that "where experiments {from cautious observations of human life} are judiciously collected and compared, we may hope to establish on them a science, which will not be inferior in certainty, and will be much superior in utility to any other of human comprehension"?

5. Who opened his "Spirit of the Laws" with a definition of law in Chapter 6?

Short Essay Questions

1. Discuss natural history's rebirth in the late seventeenth century.

2. What did Descartes conclude about mechanical philosophy and the study of life?

3. Who were the physiocrats? Explain.

4. Discuss Abraham Trembley's discovery of generation.

5. What two other academic chores brought the problem of combustion to Lavoisier's attention?

6. Explain the common property air and fire both shared.

7. Discuss the rise of experimental physiology in the 1740s.

8. What was the "Encyclopedie"?

9. What were the four fragments of knowledge that probably contributed to Lavoisier's inspiration to research combustion?

10. Discuss Montesquieu's fourteenth book of the "Spirit of the Laws."

(see the answer keys)

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