Science and the Enlightenment Test | Final Test - Medium

Thomas L. Hankins
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This test consists of 5 multiple choice questions, 5 short answer questions, and 10 short essay questions.

Multiple Choice Questions

1. The mathematical study of probability had begun in 1654 in a correspondence between ________ and ________.
(a) Newton / Darwin.
(b) Locke / Black.
(c) Quesnay / Voltaire.
(d) Pascal / Fermat.

2. The Berlin Academy of Sciences was founded in 1700 but achieved little until it was reorganized in 1743 on the Parisian model by ________.
(a) Walt Whitman.
(b) Frederick the Great.
(c) Cassius Clay.
(d) Vladimir Lenin.

3. In Chapter 4, Abbe Condillac claimed that ________ was the best language because it had the best symbols.
(a) Japanese.
(b) Sign language.
(c) Algebra.
(d) Chinese.

4. Before 1740, the standard authorities in physiology were all of the following individuals except for whom?
(a) Bellini.
(b) Newton.
(c) Boerhaave.
(d) Borelli.

5. Who saw his physiology as an animata anatome, an experimental science that investigated and explained the special properties and functions of living matter without going beyond the information obtained from the senses?
(a) Haller.
(b) D'Alembert.
(c) Diderot.
(d) Glisson.

Short Answer Questions

1. In Chapter 4, Turgot concluded from the experiments of ________ and ________ on evaporation in a vacuum that extensibility was a property not only of air but of all substances in a vaporous state.

2. Who concluded in Chapter 6 that "where experiments {from cautious observations of human life} are judiciously collected and compared, we may hope to establish on them a science, which will not be inferior in certainty, and will be much superior in utility to any other of human comprehension"?

3. Chapter 5 states that the property of "irritability" had first been recognized by ________, who used it to explain why the gall bladder does not discharge bile into the intestines constantly but only when bile is needed.

4. Chapter 6 explains ________ requires a science of man that uses methods comparable to those of the physical sciences.

5. Joseph Priestly and Henry Cavendish continued to use the term ________ for the action of fire in combustion, in Chapter 4.

Short Essay Questions

1. Discuss the three social classes in France as described in Chapter 6.

2. What two other academic chores brought the problem of combustion to Lavoisier's attention?

3. What is natural history? What does natural mean in the Aristotelian sense?

4. Discuss the rise of experimental physiology in the 1740s.

5. What were the three main ingredients of the Chemical Revolution?

6. Briefly discuss Georg Stahl and his impact on living matter.

7. Briefly discuss Du Pont de Nemours as described in Chapter 6.

8. Briefly discuss the two great national academies that were the models on which the new academies of the eighteenth century were founded.

9. Briefly explain John Mayow's experiment with a vacuum pump as described in chapter 4.

10. Who were the physiocrats? Explain.

(see the answer keys)

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