Science and the Enlightenment Test | Final Test - Medium

Thomas L. Hankins
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This test consists of 5 multiple choice questions, 5 short answer questions, and 10 short essay questions.

Multiple Choice Questions

1. Before 1740, the standard authorities in physiology were all of the following individuals except for whom?
(a) Newton.
(b) Bellini.
(c) Borelli.
(d) Boerhaave.

2. According to the narrator in Chapter 6, what where the two great national academies that were the models on which the new academies of the eighteenth century were founded?
(a) International School of Luxembourg / Crossroads Christian Academy.
(b) Royal Society of London / Paris Academy of Science.
(c) International Bilingual School of Provence / Black Forest Academy.
(d) International School of Georgia / German School of Athens.

3. The science of man took several very different directions during the Enlightenment, the most controversial being that of ________.
(a) Lavoisier.
(b) Rousseau.
(c) Condorcet.
(d) Robespierre.

4. According to the narrator in Chapter 4, who was the most successful searcher for "airs"?
(a) Cavendish.
(b) Whytt.
(c) Joseph Black.
(d) Joseph Priestley.

5. Chapter 5 states that the property of "irritability" had first been recognized by ________, who used it to explain why the gall bladder does not discharge bile into the intestines constantly but only when bile is needed.
(a) Glisson.
(b) Haller.
(c) Bordue.
(d) Hoffmann.

Short Answer Questions

1. The period that we call the Enlightenment ended with whom according to the narrator in Chapter 6?

2. The mathematical study of probability had begun in 1654 in a correspondence between ________ and ________.

3. In Chapter 5, ________ and ________ found freshwater worms regenerated in the same fashion, and since worms were definitely animals, previous doubts about the animality of the polyp lost their force.

4. In Chapter 4, Turgot concluded from the experiments of ________ and ________ on evaporation in a vacuum that extensibility was a property not only of air but of all substances in a vaporous state.

5. Robert Whytt and Charles Aston studied the properties of ________ and ________ according, to the narrator in Chapter 4.

Short Essay Questions

1. Briefly discuss the two great national academies that were the models on which the new academies of the eighteenth century were founded.

2. Who were the physiocrats? Explain.

3. In what ways was the theory of epigenesis sophisticated?

4. Explain the common property air and fire both shared.

5. What did Descartes conclude about mechanical philosophy and the study of life?

6. Briefly explain Joseph Priestley and his contribution to gas chemistry.

7. Discuss the rise of experimental physiology in the 1740s.

8. Explain how probability as human judgment was important in law and in commercial transactions.

9. Discuss Turgot's version of the science of man.

10. What were a couple ways to promote the science of man according to Chapter 6?

(see the answer keys)

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