Science and the Enlightenment Test | Final Test - Medium

Thomas L. Hankins
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This test consists of 5 multiple choice questions, 5 short answer questions, and 10 short essay questions.

Multiple Choice Questions

1. According to the narrator at the beginning of Chapter 5, this chapter is about the world of living things and could be called ________, except as a word and as a discipline, it did not appear until the very end of the eighteenth century.
(a) Zoology.
(b) Biology.
(c) Oceanography.
(d) Geneology.

2. In Chapter 4, the narrator reveals that Anne Robert Jacques Turgot was a famous French ________.
(a) Chemist.
(b) Public servant.
(c) Philosopher.
(d) Physicist.

3. Who argued in Chapter 6 that although men did not enjoy equal abilities, they did have the same natural rights, and it was therefore incumbent on the government to allow individuals to pursue their own best interests to the extent that they could without infringing on the natural rights of others?
(a) Voltaire.
(b) Quesnay.
(c) Descarte.
(d) La Riviere.

4. The ________ class in France was composed of those who manufactured and distributed goods made from the raw materials produced by the productive class.
(a) Quesnay.
(b) Huygen.
(c) Artisan.
(d) Pascal.

5. Baron d'Holback's "System of Nature" became known as the ________, according to the narrator in Chapter 6.
(a) Atheists' Bible.
(b) Christian Bible.
(c) World Almanac.
(d) Reader's Digest.

Short Answer Questions

1. The reintroduction of atomism into chemistry was accomplished by a meteorologist, ________, who became a chemist only when he saw the implications for chemistry of his ideas about the atmosphere.

2. The campaign of the philosophes to reform the criminal code in France began with the ________ affair.

3. In Chapter 4, Abbe Condillac claimed that ________ was the best language because it had the best symbols.

4. Electricians in the following countries concluded from their experiments that electrified seeds germinated faster, that electrified plants sent out shoots earlier, and that electrified animals were slightly lighter than non-electrified ones, except for which country?

5. What was the name of the leader of the natural history revival in England and the best naturalist of his age, according to the narrator in Chapter 5?

Short Essay Questions

1. Explain why the Chemical Revolution was more the creation of a new science than a change in an existing one.

2. Describe the three primary kinds of governments Montesquieu distinguished between in Chapter 6.

3. Discuss Turgot's version of the science of man.

4. Discuss the rise of experimental physiology in the 1740s.

5. Briefly explain Joseph Priestley and his contribution to gas chemistry.

6. What were a couple ways to promote the science of man according to Chapter 6?

7. What was the medical purpose of Black's research in gas chemistry? Explain.

8. Briefly explain John Mayow's experiment with a vacuum pump as described in chapter 4.

9. Explain the importance of electricity producing muscle contractions.

10. What was the "Encyclopedie"?

(see the answer keys)

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