Science and the Enlightenment Test | Final Test - Medium

Thomas L. Hankins
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This test consists of 5 multiple choice questions, 5 short answer questions, and 10 short essay questions.

Multiple Choice Questions

1. Who concluded in Chapter 6 that "where experiments {from cautious observations of human life} are judiciously collected and compared, we may hope to establish on them a science, which will not be inferior in certainty, and will be much superior in utility to any other of human comprehension"?
(a) Montesquieu.
(b) Voltaire.
(c) Hume.
(d) Bayle.

2. The ________ greatly increased the demand for certain chemical products, such as alkalis and mineral acids, and the search for improved methods of manufacture resulted in new chemical techniques in metallurgy, ceramics, and textiles, especially in textile dyeing and bleaching.
(a) Industrial Revolution.
(b) Great Depression.
(c) French Revolution.
(d) World War II.

3. In Chapter 4, what is the name of the group of financiers who obtained from the French government the right to collect taxes?
(a) Personal tax assistant.
(b) Tax farm.
(c) Tax lawyer.
(d) Fixed sum.

4. In Chapter 4, the narrator reveals that Anne Robert Jacques Turgot was a famous French ________.
(a) Chemist.
(b) Physicist.
(c) Public servant.
(d) Philosopher.

5. In Chapter 4, Abbe Condillac claimed that ________ was the best language because it had the best symbols.
(a) Chinese.
(b) Sign language.
(c) Algebra.
(d) Japanese.

Short Answer Questions

1. According to the narrator in Chapter 6, who coined the term physiocratie?

2. Beginning in 1760, all of the following individuals were considered the three best experimentalists of the century who were all drawn to the ovist version of the preformation theory except for which one?

3. According to the narrator in Chapter 4, who was the most successful searcher for "airs"?

4. Who was the first person to identify a new air different from common atmospheric air,, in Chapter 4?

5. The science of man took several very different directions during the Enlightenment, the most controversial being that of ________.

Short Essay Questions

1. Discuss Montesquieu's fourteenth book of the "Spirit of the Laws."

2. Describe the three primary kinds of governments Montesquieu distinguished between in Chapter 6.

3. What were a couple ways to promote the science of man according to Chapter 6?

4. Briefly explain Joseph Priestley and his contribution to gas chemistry.

5. In what ways was the theory of epigenesis sophisticated?

6. Explain the common property air and fire both shared.

7. What two other academic chores brought the problem of combustion to Lavoisier's attention?

8. Discuss Regnier de Graaf's experiments on digestive fluids.

9. What were the four fragments of knowledge that probably contributed to Lavoisier's inspiration to research combustion?

10. What was the "Encyclopedie"?

(see the answer keys)

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