Science and the Enlightenment Test | Final Test - Medium

Thomas L. Hankins
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This test consists of 5 multiple choice questions, 5 short answer questions, and 10 short essay questions.

Multiple Choice Questions

1. What was the name of the leader of the natural history revival in England and the best naturalist of his age, according to the narrator in Chapter 5?
(a) Newton.
(b) Ray.
(c) Darwin.
(d) Foucault.

2. The narrator explains that the most important elements for the Chemical Revolution were ________ and ________.
(a) Air / Earth.
(b) Air / fire.
(c) Earth / Water.
(d) Fire / Earth.

3. Who concluded in Chapter 6 that "where experiments {from cautious observations of human life} are judiciously collected and compared, we may hope to establish on them a science, which will not be inferior in certainty, and will be much superior in utility to any other of human comprehension"?
(a) Hume.
(b) Bayle.
(c) Voltaire.
(d) Montesquieu.

4. In 1728, what was the name of the English Quaker who published in London a two-volume "Cyclopaedia" or universal dictionary of the arts and sciences?
(a) Condorcet.
(b) Chambers.
(c) Persia.
(d) Bacon.

5. Joseph Black studied ________, which had only recently been used as a medicine, according to Chapter 4.
(a) Carbon monoxide.
(b) Limewater.
(c) Quicklime.
(d) Magnesia alba.

Short Answer Questions

1. The mathematical study of probability had begun in 1654 in a correspondence between ________ and ________.

2. The narrator in Chapter 6 explains that ________ is a function of the tension or lassitude of the "fibers" that compose the body.

3. Chapter 5 states that the property of "irritability" had first been recognized by ________, who used it to explain why the gall bladder does not discharge bile into the intestines constantly but only when bile is needed.

4. Joseph Black studied chemistry with ________ at Glasgow, serving for three years as his assistant, according to Chapter 4.

5. In Chapter 4, the narrator reveals that Anne Robert Jacques Turgot was a famous French ________.

Short Essay Questions

1. In what ways was the theory of epigenesis sophisticated?

2. Discuss the rise of experimental physiology in the 1740s.

3. Who were the physiocrats? Explain.

4. Explain the importance of electricity producing muscle contractions.

5. Discuss Turgot's version of the science of man.

6. What did Descartes conclude about mechanical philosophy and the study of life?

7. Discuss Regnier de Graaf's experiments on digestive fluids.

8. Explain how probability as human judgment was important in law and in commercial transactions.

9. Discuss natural history's rebirth in the late seventeenth century.

10. Briefly discuss Georg Stahl and his impact on living matter.

(see the answer keys)

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