Science and the Enlightenment Test | Final Test - Medium

Thomas L. Hankins
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This test consists of 5 multiple choice questions, 5 short answer questions, and 10 short essay questions.

Multiple Choice Questions

1. Who opened his "Spirit of the Laws" with a definition of law in Chapter 6?
(a) Hume.
(b) Montesquieu.
(c) Voltaire.
(d) Rousseau.

2. ________ theory entered into law not only in the making of contracts but also in the determination of guilt and innocence.
(a) Probability.
(b) Matrix.
(c) Quantum.
(d) Chaos.

3. When experimentalists studied electricity, the ________ and the ________ were candidates for study because they both appeared to protect themselves electrically.
(a) Electric eel / sensitive plant.
(b) Leafy seadragon / Hagfish.
(c) Great white shark / dolphin.
(d) Komodo dragon / sloth.

4. Before 1740, the standard authorities in physiology were all of the following individuals except for whom?
(a) Borelli.
(b) Newton.
(c) Boerhaave.
(d) Bellini.

5. Van Helmont had proposed an ________ in the stomach that he believed to be the innermost essence of life and that acted by fermentation.
(a) Archaeus.
(b) Axolotl.
(c) Nasalis.
(d) Myxini.

Short Answer Questions

1. Who argued in Chapter 6 that although men did not enjoy equal abilities, they did have the same natural rights, and it was therefore incumbent on the government to allow individuals to pursue their own best interests to the extent that they could without infringing on the natural rights of others?

2. What was the name of the leader of the natural history revival in England and the best naturalist of his age, according to the narrator in Chapter 5?

3. Chapter 5 states that ________ means an inquiry or investigation into nature.

4. In 1660, Robert Boyle published an account of experiments that he had performed with his ________, according to the narrator in Chapter 4.

5. The following were the three primary kinds of government Montesquieu distinguished between in Chapter 6 except for which one?

Short Essay Questions

1. Briefly discuss Jean Senebier's interpretation of Ingen-Housz's explanation of how plants produced oxygen.

2. Briefly discuss the two great national academies that were the models on which the new academies of the eighteenth century were founded.

3. Explain the common property air and fire both shared.

4. Briefly discuss Georg Stahl and his impact on living matter.

5. What were the four fragments of knowledge that probably contributed to Lavoisier's inspiration to research combustion?

6. Briefly explain Joseph Black as described in Chapter 4.

7. What two other academic chores brought the problem of combustion to Lavoisier's attention?

8. Explain how probability as human judgment was important in law and in commercial transactions.

9. Describe the three primary kinds of governments Montesquieu distinguished between in Chapter 6.

10. Discuss Montesquieu's fourteenth book of the "Spirit of the Laws."

(see the answer keys)

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