Science and the Enlightenment Test | Final Test - Medium

Thomas L. Hankins
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This test consists of 5 multiple choice questions, 5 short answer questions, and 10 short essay questions.

Multiple Choice Questions

1. Chapter 6 explains ________ requires a science of man that uses methods comparable to those of the physical sciences.
(a) Philosophy.
(b) Social science.
(c) Psychology.
(d) Scientology.

2. In Chapter 4, the narrator reveals that Anne Robert Jacques Turgot was a famous French ________.
(a) Physicist.
(b) Philosopher.
(c) Chemist.
(d) Public servant.

3. The Berlin Academy of Sciences was founded in 1700 but achieved little until it was reorganized in 1743 on the Parisian model by ________.
(a) Cassius Clay.
(b) Walt Whitman.
(c) Vladimir Lenin.
(d) Frederick the Great.

4. The mathematical study of probability had begun in 1654 in a correspondence between ________ and ________.
(a) Quesnay / Voltaire.
(b) Locke / Black.
(c) Newton / Darwin.
(d) Pascal / Fermat.

5. What was the name of the psychological explanation Buffon gave which are essentially the judgments made by men in taking risks, depending on the psychology of the individual balancing hope of gain against fear of loss?
(a) Moral probabilities.
(b) Speculative reason.
(c) Theory of truth.
(d) Manifolds.

Short Answer Questions

1. Who confirmed Reaumur's experiments, did others on the digestive action of saliva, and performed the experiments on himself?

2. In Chapter 4, who found that many liquids cooled on evaporation: the more volatile the liquid, the greater the amount of cooling?

3. Saussure found that plants grow better in an atmosphere rich in fixed air, up to a concentration of approximately ________ percent.

4. Chapter 5 reveals that in ________, natural theology declined after 1750 as a result of the anti-religious sentiment of the Enlightenment.

5. Who opened his "Spirit of the Laws" with a definition of law in Chapter 6?

Short Essay Questions

1. Who were the physiocrats? Explain.

2. Explain why the Chemical Revolution was more the creation of a new science than a change in an existing one.

3. Briefly discuss Georg Stahl and his impact on living matter.

4. Briefly explain Joseph Black as described in Chapter 4.

5. Explain the importance of electricity producing muscle contractions.

6. What was the "Encyclopedie"?

7. Discuss the three social classes in France as described in Chapter 6.

8. Discuss Montesquieu's fourteenth book of the "Spirit of the Laws."

9. Discuss the rise of experimental physiology in the 1740s.

10. What were the three main ingredients of the Chemical Revolution?

(see the answer keys)

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