Science and the Enlightenment Test | Mid-Book Test - Medium

Thomas L. Hankins
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This test consists of 5 multiple choice questions, 5 short answer questions, and 10 short essay questions.

Multiple Choice Questions

1. The eighteenth century was called by the French the ________ because of its emphasis on reason as a path to knowledge.
(a) Century of light.
(b) Century of life.
(c) Century of science.
(d) Century of reason.

2. Who had written a preface to the second edition of the "Principia," supposedly with Newton's blessing, that described gravity as a force acting at a distance without any intervening medium?
(a) Roger Cortes.
(b) Robert Boyle.
(c) Henry Oldenburg.
(d) James Butler.

3. What was the name of the path by which an object slides from one point to another that is not on the same vertical line in the shortest possible time?
(a) Catenary.
(b) Brachistachrone.
(c) Tractrix.
(d) Involute.

4. Who made the first extensive series of investigations of electricity in his book "De Magnete," according to Chapter 3?
(a) Robert Symmer.
(b) William Gilbert.
(c) John Cuthbertson.
(d) Abbe Nollet.

5. Madame du Chatelet supported the Leibnizian theory of ________ because it gave a better account of free will.
(a) Religion.
(b) Physics.
(c) Mechanics.
(d) Christianity.

Short Answer Questions

1. The concept of a ________ was a necessary step in the process of quantification, according to the narrator in Chapter 3.

2. The concept of subtle fluids made its appearance around ________ when demonstration experiments in physics were rapidly gaining in popularity, according to the narrator in Chapter 3.

3. What was the name of the curve traced by the end of a string as it is unwrapped from another curve found in Chapter 2?

4. All of the following philosophers at the University of Leiden followed Newton's lead in organizing experiments except for whom?

5. ________'s emphasis on the repulsive or expansive property of air, led naturally to an emphasis on the expansive properties of the even more subtle fluids of heat and electricity.

Short Essay Questions

1. What were the proponents of blunt rods which where used in the study of electricity? Who led the proponents of blunt rods? Explain.

2. Explain why Newton's laws were not adequate to deal with all of the mechanical phenomena studied during the Enlightenment.

3. Discuss the study of physics in the beginning of the Enlightenment.

4. Discuss the origin of the study of electricity.

5. What was the meaning of experimental physics at the end of the Enlightenment? Why is important that the meaning of experimental physics had changed?

6. Discuss Fontenelle's tie to science and literature as discussed in Chapter 1.

7. Discuss the periodic fluctuation Bradley found in 1748.

8. Why was income important to scientists during the Enlightenment period?

9. What prompted the versions of the mechanical philosophy in the seventeenth century? Give an example.

10. Who coined the term "Scientific Revolution" and who was this person? What was the Scientific Revolution?

(see the answer keys)

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