Science and the Enlightenment Test | Mid-Book Test - Medium

Thomas L. Hankins
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This test consists of 5 multiple choice questions, 5 short answer questions, and 10 short essay questions.

Multiple Choice Questions

1. Who believed that the universe would run down if it were not for God's intervention to renew his creation?
(a) Eddison.
(b) Franklin.
(c) Johnson.
(d) Newton.

2. All of the following philosophers at the University of Leiden followed Newton's lead in organizing experiments except for whom?
(a) Locke.
(b) Musschenbroek.
(c) 'sGravesande.
(d) Boerhaave.

3. What was the name of the revolution that was a cultural event associated with Galileo Galilei, Johannes Kepler, Rene Descartes, and Isaac Newton?
(a) American Revolution.
(b) Enlightenment Revolution.
(c) Scientific Revolution.
(d) French Revolution.

4. The concept of subtle fluids made its appearance around ________ when demonstration experiments in physics were rapidly gaining in popularity, according to the narrator in Chapter 3.
(a) 1853.
(b) 1740.
(c) 1800.
(d) 1770.

5. According to the narrator in Chapter 1, what was the key to a correct method whose model was mathematics?
(a) Nuture.
(b) Nature.
(c) Reason.
(d) Geometry.

Short Answer Questions

1. In Chapter 2, who was the greatest analyst of the Enlightenment and created mathematical theories to predict the buckling of columns and beams?

2. Who stated in 1665 that "Analysis...seems to belong no more to Mathematics than to Physics, Ethics or any other Science"?

3. Who came out in support of vis viva in 1722 and concluded that "what was before only a dispute of words now becomes a dispute about real things"?

4. What was the name of the problem of finding the shape of a surface of maximum area for a perimeter of given length as found in Chapter 2?

5. Chapter 1 states that the "geometric spirit" noted by ________ ensured that the same progress would occur in our knowledge about nature.

Short Essay Questions

1. What did the French call the eighteenth century? Explain.

2. Explain how the laws of nature were to be discovered by experimentation and observation.

3. Discuss Fontenelle's tie to science and literature as discussed in Chapter 1.

4. Briefly explain the major philosopher of method in France in the eighteenth century.

5. Who redefined physics in the 1720s? Explain.

6. Discuss Charles Francois de Cisternai Dufay and his impact in electrical science.

7. Discuss the ideology of the Enlightenment on natural philosophers. Who was France's main natural philosopher? Explain.

8. Who was William Herschel and what planet did he discover?

9. Discuss Christian Wolff's book "Generally useful researches for attaining to a more exact knowledge of nature and the arts."

10. What was the meaning of experimental physics at the end of the Enlightenment? Why is important that the meaning of experimental physics had changed?

(see the answer keys)

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