Science and the Enlightenment Test | Mid-Book Test - Medium

Thomas L. Hankins
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This test consists of 5 multiple choice questions, 5 short answer questions, and 10 short essay questions.

Multiple Choice Questions

1. Contemporary chemistry recognized only one element in the gaseous state, and that was the element _______.
(a) Earth.
(b) Fire.
(c) Air.
(d) Water.

2. In Chapter 1, who claimed that his "principle of least action" proved the existence of God?
(a) Malebranche.
(b) Newton.
(c) Pierre-Louis-Moreau de Maupertuis.
(d) Leibniz.

3. According to the narrator in Chapter 3, who became a famous doctor and chemist and initiated the Dutch program in his oration of 1715 entitled "De comparando certo in physicis"?
(a) Musschenbroek.
(b) Newton.
(c) Mariotte.
(d) Boerhaave.

4. In 1769, ________, a student of Joseph Black's at Glasgow, measured the repulsion between charges with an apparatus that balanced the electrical repulsion against gravitational attraction.
(a) Luigi Galvani.
(b) John Robison.
(c) Charles Augustin Coulomb.
(d) Volta.

5. According to the narrator in Chapter 3, Abbe Nollet, who became the most prominent ________ during the Enlightenment, explained the two electricities as opposing currents of the electrical fluid emerging in jets from the electrified body.
(a) French electrician.
(b) American plumber.
(c) German psychologist.
(d) Polish priest.

Short Answer Questions

1. What was the name of the philosopher who was the leading scientific experimenter in seventeenth-century England, who had agreed that he had never seen any "inanimate production of nature, or of chance, whose contrivance was comparable to that of the meanest limb of the despicabilist animal"?

2. Who was France's greatest hero of the Enlightenment partly because he was from England, the source of free thought and liberty and partly because he had solved the riddle of the planets, showing that their motions obeyed the same laws as motions on earth?

3. According to the narrator in Chapter 2, the only machine employed by rational mechanics was ________.

4. Vis viva was thought by its creator ________ to be the dynamic quantity that was conserved in the universe, according to the narrator in Chapter 2.

5. What was the name of the philosopher who had a passion for humanity, a desire to "do good," and a penchant for reform, according to Chapter 1?

Short Essay Questions

1. Discuss the ideology of the Enlightenment on natural philosophers. Who was France's main natural philosopher? Explain.

2. Who was William Herschel and what planet did he discover?

3. Discuss Fontenelle's tie to science and literature as discussed in Chapter 1.

4. Discuss Benjamin Franklin's single static electrical atmosphere.

5. Discuss Charles Francois de Cisternai Dufay and his impact in electrical science.

6. Discuss how nature and reason tied into the Enlightenment.

7. Who coined the term "Scientific Revolution" and who was this person? What was the Scientific Revolution?

8. What prompted the versions of the mechanical philosophy in the seventeenth century? Give an example.

9. Discuss the periodic fluctuation Bradley found in 1748.

10. Discuss the electrical experiments of Benjamin Franklin, Stephen Gray and Abbe Jean Antoine Nollet.

(see the answer keys)

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