Science and the Enlightenment Test | Mid-Book Test - Medium

Thomas L. Hankins
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This test consists of 5 multiple choice questions, 5 short answer questions, and 10 short essay questions.

Multiple Choice Questions

1. In Chapter 3, ________ and ________ were both led to the problem of specific heat by the discovery that a great deal of heat was required to melt ice, even though its temperature remained at the melting point.
(a) Wilcke / Robison.
(b) Black / Coulomb.
(c) Galvani / Volta.
(d) Black / Wilcke.

2. ________'s emphasis on the repulsive or expansive property of air, led naturally to an emphasis on the expansive properties of the even more subtle fluids of heat and electricity.
(a) Aristotle.
(b) Hales.
(c) Boerhaave.
(d) Musschenbroek.

3. According to the narrator in Chapter 3, who became a famous doctor and chemist and initiated the Dutch program in his oration of 1715 entitled "De comparando certo in physicis"?
(a) Newton.
(b) Mariotte.
(c) Boerhaave.
(d) Musschenbroek.

4. In 1688, Fontenelle wrote a treatise on the nature of the eclogue or ________.
(a) Pastoral poem.
(b) Sonnet.
(c) Limerick.
(d) Haiku.

5. ________, "curator of experiments" at the Royal Society, began research on the luminosity of phosphorus in 1705, under instruction from members of the society.
(a) Abbe Nollet.
(b) Francis Hauksbee.
(c) William Gilbert.
(d) John Cuthbertson.

Short Answer Questions

1. The narrator reveals that vis viva was a measure of ________ to conserve his creation while "action" was a measure of his efficiency.

2. Who came out in support of vis viva in 1722 and concluded that "what was before only a dispute of words now becomes a dispute about real things"?

3. The concept of a ________ was a necessary step in the process of quantification, according to the narrator in Chapter 3.

4. In the hands of ________, history led not to an understanding of God's will but rather to an understanding of human nature.

5. The ________, who had been leaders in experimental physics during the seventeenth century, continued to hold a prominent place until their order was suppressed in 1773.

Short Essay Questions

1. Who was William Herschel and what planet did he discover?

2. Describe Gabrielle de Breteuil.

3. What did the French call the eighteenth century? Explain.

4. Discuss the electrical experiments of Benjamin Franklin, Stephen Gray and Abbe Jean Antoine Nollet.

5. Discuss Fontenelle's tie to science and literature as discussed in Chapter 1.

6. Who redefined physics in the 1720s? Explain.

7. Discuss the periodic fluctuation Bradley found in 1748.

8. Explain how mathematics and mechanics advanced through the study of curves.

9. How did the eighteenth century define analysis? Explain.

10. Discuss Christian Wolff's book "Generally useful researches for attaining to a more exact knowledge of nature and the arts."

(see the answer keys)

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