Science and the Enlightenment Test | Mid-Book Test - Medium

Thomas L. Hankins
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This test consists of 5 multiple choice questions, 5 short answer questions, and 10 short essay questions.

Multiple Choice Questions

1. What was the name of the revolution that was a cultural event associated with Galileo Galilei, Johannes Kepler, Rene Descartes, and Isaac Newton?
(a) French Revolution.
(b) Enlightenment Revolution.
(c) Scientific Revolution.
(d) American Revolution.

2. Who believed that the universe would run down if it were not for God's intervention to renew his creation?
(a) Newton.
(b) Franklin.
(c) Johnson.
(d) Eddison.

3. The narrator explains in Chapter 3 that ________ and ________ were the best examples of subtle fluids.
(a) Water / air.
(b) Electricity / water.
(c) Heat / air.
(d) Electricity / heat.

4. Who carried rational mechanics to the highest point of generality and abstraction that it was to reach during the Enlightenment?
(a) Diderot.
(b) Hermann.
(c) Lagrange.
(d) Daniel.

5. Who came out in support of vis viva in 1722 and concluded that "what was before only a dispute of words now becomes a dispute about real things"?
(a) Voltaire.
(b) 'sGravesande.
(c) Musschenbroek.
(d) Galileo Galilei.

Short Answer Questions

1. In Chapter 3, who proposed a single static electrical "atmosphere" that attracted and repelled by pressure rather than by the impact of an electrical wind?

2. Who coined the expression "Scientific Revolution," according to the narrator in Chapter 1?

3. In the early years of the Enlightenment, the strongest support on the Continent for Newton's philosophy came from ________.

4. What was the name of the priest of the Congregation of the Oratory, who was also a philosopher, mathematician, and member of the French Academy of Sciences?

5. Who became the ablest and most productive mathematician of the eighteenth century, according to the narrator in Chapter 2?

Short Essay Questions

1. Discuss Benjamin Franklin's single static electrical atmosphere.

2. Discuss Charles Francois de Cisternai Dufay and his impact in electrical science.

3. Who was William Herschel and what planet did he discover?

4. Discuss the electrical experiments of Benjamin Franklin, Stephen Gray and Abbe Jean Antoine Nollet.

5. Discuss the ideology of the Enlightenment on natural philosophers. Who was France's main natural philosopher? Explain.

6. Briefly discuss the origin of subtle fluid as discuss in Chapter 3 of "Science and the Enlightenment."

7. What advantage did natural philosophy have over other literary pursuits? Explain.

8. Who redefined physics in the 1720s? Explain.

9. Discuss the two concepts that were studied in rational mechanics during the Enlightenment.

10. Discuss how nature and reason tied into the Enlightenment.

(see the answer keys)

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