|Name: _________________________||Period: ___________________|
This test consists of 5 multiple choice questions, 5 short answer questions, and 10 short essay questions.
Multiple Choice Questions
1. ________, "curator of experiments" at the Royal Society, began research on the luminosity of phosphorus in 1705, under instruction from members of the society.
(a) John Cuthbertson.
(b) William Gilbert.
(c) Abbe Nollet.
(d) Francis Hauksbee.
2. In 1729, ________, a dedicated amateur experimenter and occasional contributor to the "Philosophical Transactions" of the Royal Society, discovered that electricity could be communicated over rather long distances by contact.
(c) Stephen Gray.
(d) Francis Hauksbee.
3. Madame du Chatelet supported the Leibnizian theory of ________ because it gave a better account of free will.
4. According to Chapter 1, who made Newton into a supreme rationalist whose laws of motion were a priori deductions of pure thought?
(d) Marquis de l'Hopital.
5. All of the following English philosophers had shown convincingly that knowledge about the physical world could not be obtained from first principles without resort to experiment except for whom?
Short Answer Questions
1. The discipline of physics had originally been created by ________, and it had nothing to do with experiment or quantitative measure nor was it limited to the inorganic world.
2. In a letter of September 21, 1781, who wrote to his mentor Jean d'Alembert that he feared mathematics had reached its limit?
3. All of the following were forms of fire, according to Boerhaave and Musschenbroek, except for which one?
4. Contemporary chemistry recognized only one element in the gaseous state, and that was the element _______.
5. Who stated in 1665 that "Analysis...seems to belong no more to Mathematics than to Physics, Ethics or any other Science"?
Short Essay Questions
1. Discuss the study of physics in the beginning of the Enlightenment.
2. Discuss Fontenelle's tie to science and literature as discussed in Chapter 1.
3. Why was income important to scientists during the Enlightenment period?
4. What prompted the versions of the mechanical philosophy in the seventeenth century? Give an example.
5. What was the meaning of experimental physics at the end of the Enlightenment? Why is important that the meaning of experimental physics had changed?
6. Discuss the periodic fluctuation Bradley found in 1748.
7. Discuss Christian Wolff's book "Generally useful researches for attaining to a more exact knowledge of nature and the arts."
8. Explain how mathematics and mechanics advanced through the study of curves.
9. Explain how the laws of nature were to be discovered by experimentation and observation.
10. Discuss Benjamin Franklin's single static electrical atmosphere.
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