Science and the Enlightenment Test | Mid-Book Test - Medium

Thomas L. Hankins
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This test consists of 5 multiple choice questions, 5 short answer questions, and 10 short essay questions.

Multiple Choice Questions

1. Which German metaphysician, when asked in 1785 if he believed he lived in an enlightened age, answered, "No, we are living in an age of enlightenment."
(a) Diderot.
(b) Immanuel Kant.
(c) Maupertuis.
(d) Chatelet.

2. ________ in Italy and ________ in Holland did experiments in which they measured the impact of a falling ball by dropping in onto clay.
(a) Voltaire / d'Alembert.
(b) Newton / Aristotle.
(c) Giovanni Poleni / 'sGravesande.
(d) 'sGravesande / Descartes.

3. What area of science included astronomy, optics, statics, hydraulics, gnomonics, geography, horology, navigation, surveying, and fortification?
(a) Meteorology.
(b) Botany.
(c) Mixed mathematics.
(d) Geology.

4. By what name did natural philosophers want to be known as, according to the narrator in Chapter 1?
(a) Professors.
(b) Masters.
(c) Men of Letters.
(d) Men of Honor.

5. In 1688, Fontenelle wrote a treatise on the nature of the eclogue or ________.
(a) Sonnet.
(b) Pastoral poem.
(c) Haiku.
(d) Limerick.

Short Answer Questions

1. What category of science, at the beginning of the Enlightenment, was "the science that teaches us the reasons and causes of all the effects that Nature produces," including both living and nonliving phenomena?

2. All of the following were forms of fire, according to Boerhaave and Musschenbroek, except for which one?

3. All of the following English philosophers had shown convincingly that knowledge about the physical world could not be obtained from first principles without resort to experiment except for whom?

4. Who came out in support of vis viva in 1722 and concluded that "what was before only a dispute of words now becomes a dispute about real things"?

5. Some of the "cabinet de physique" became very large, the most famous being the collection of the ________ in Haarlem.

Short Essay Questions

1. Discuss Charles Francois de Cisternai Dufay and his impact in electrical science.

2. What did Leibniz argue in regards to the mechanical philosophy of the Enlightenment?

3. Explain why Newton's laws were not adequate to deal with all of the mechanical phenomena studied during the Enlightenment.

4. Discuss the study of physics in the beginning of the Enlightenment.

5. Discuss the periodic fluctuation Bradley found in 1748.

6. What advantage did natural philosophy have over other literary pursuits? Explain.

7. Who was William Herschel and what planet did he discover?

8. Discuss the product of the Philosophical Letters.

9. Discuss the two concepts that were studied in rational mechanics during the Enlightenment.

10. Discuss Christian Wolff's book "Generally useful researches for attaining to a more exact knowledge of nature and the arts."

(see the answer keys)

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