Science and the Enlightenment Test | Mid-Book Test - Easy

Thomas L. Hankins
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This test consists of 15 multiple choice questions and 5 short answer questions.

Multiple Choice Questions

1. In Chapter 3, what was the name of the experimental tradition began in Western Europe during the Renaissance?
(a) Black magic.
(b) Natural magic.
(c) Practical magic.
(d) Physics.

2. Who was the extraordinary philosopher whose life and career exemplified many aspects of the Enlightenment, although he was not especially prominent as a natural philosopher nor was he the main protagonist in the vis viva controversy?
(a) Voltaire.
(b) Chatelet.
(c) Bernoulli.
(d) Gabrielle de Breteuil.

3. What was the name of the priest of the Congregation of the Oratory, who was also a philosopher, mathematician, and member of the French Academy of Sciences?
(a) Nicolas Malebranche.
(b) Newton.
(c) Descartes.
(d) Chatelet.

4. All of the following were forms of fire, according to Boerhaave and Musschenbroek, except for which one?
(a) Heat.
(b) Electricity.
(c) Wood.
(d) Light.

5. In Chapter 3, ________ and ________ were both led to the problem of specific heat by the discovery that a great deal of heat was required to melt ice, even though its temperature remained at the melting point.
(a) Black / Coulomb.
(b) Wilcke / Robison.
(c) Galvani / Volta.
(d) Black / Wilcke.

6. ________'s emphasis on the repulsive or expansive property of air, led naturally to an emphasis on the expansive properties of the even more subtle fluids of heat and electricity.
(a) Boerhaave.
(b) Hales.
(c) Musschenbroek.
(d) Aristotle.

7. According to the narrator in Chapter 3, Abbe Nollet, who became the most prominent ________ during the Enlightenment, explained the two electricities as opposing currents of the electrical fluid emerging in jets from the electrified body.
(a) Polish priest.
(b) American plumber.
(c) French electrician.
(d) German psychologist.

8. The concept of a ________ was a necessary step in the process of quantification, according to the narrator in Chapter 3.
(a) Acid fluid.
(b) Transmission fluid.
(c) Capacitor fluid.
(d) Subtle fluid.

9. What was the name of the philosopher who had a passion for humanity, a desire to "do good," and a penchant for reform, according to Chapter 1?
(a) Condorcet.
(b) Newton.
(c) Maupertuis.
(d) Descartes.

10. What was the name of the philosopher who was the leading scientific experimenter in seventeenth-century England, who had agreed that he had never seen any "inanimate production of nature, or of chance, whose contrivance was comparable to that of the meanest limb of the despicabilist animal"?
(a) Swift.
(b) Galileo.
(c) Robert Boyle.
(d) Locke.

11. What area of study in the Middle Ages had been the domain of those truths that could be found through the use of reason alone without the revelation of the Bible?
(a) Psychology.
(b) Physiology.
(c) Natural theology.
(d) Mied mathematics.

12. Contemporary chemistry recognized only one element in the gaseous state, and that was the element _______.
(a) Air.
(b) Fire.
(c) Earth.
(d) Water.

13. In Chapter 3, whose book described demonstration experiments and gave detailed instructions for making and using the apparatus, but unlike the Dutch physicists, he attempted to create a single rational systematic philosophy, after the model of Leibniz?
(a) Chatelet.
(b) 'sGravesande.
(c) Wolff.
(d) Desaguliers.

14. According to Chapter 3, ________ was the most volatile and least substantial of all the elements; therefore, it was the chief agent of change, as witnessed by its role in combustion, fermentation, decomposition, and evaporation.
(a) Water.
(b) Wind.
(c) Air.
(d) Fire.

15. Descartes's "quantity of motion" is equivalent to our modern principle of the conservation of ________.
(a) Formalism.
(b) Momentum.
(c) Hermeneutics.
(d) Impression.

Short Answer Questions

1. Who became the ablest and most productive mathematician of the eighteenth century, according to the narrator in Chapter 2?

2. Who believed that the universe would run down if it were not for God's intervention to renew his creation?

3. Who argued in the "Preliminary discourse" to the "Encyclopedie" that mathematics was basic to all of physics, according to the narrator in Chapter 3?

4. Madame du Chatelet supported the Leibnizian theory of ________ because it gave a better account of free will.

5. Newton had not made it clear whether the forces acting between the planets and between the parts of matter acted at a distance or through some intervening medium called a(n) ________.

(see the answer keys)

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