Science and the Enlightenment Test | Mid-Book Test - Easy

Thomas L. Hankins
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This test consists of 15 multiple choice questions and 5 short answer questions.

Multiple Choice Questions

1. Vis viva was thought by its creator ________ to be the dynamic quantity that was conserved in the universe, according to the narrator in Chapter 2.
(a) 'sGravesande.
(b) Euler.
(c) Leibniz.
(d) Descartes.

2. In 1769, ________, a student of Joseph Black's at Glasgow, measured the repulsion between charges with an apparatus that balanced the electrical repulsion against gravitational attraction.
(a) John Robison.
(b) Volta.
(c) Charles Augustin Coulomb.
(d) Luigi Galvani.

3. What was the name of the curve traced by the end of a string as it is unwrapped from another curve found in Chapter 2?
(a) Isoperimeters.
(b) Involute.
(c) Tractrix.
(d) Cycloid.

4. Who became the leading literary figure of the Enlightenment and in 1734 published "Philosophical Letters"?
(a) Chatelet.
(b) Breteuil.
(c) Newton.
(d) Voltaire.

5. According to Chapter 3, ________ was the most volatile and least substantial of all the elements; therefore, it was the chief agent of change, as witnessed by its role in combustion, fermentation, decomposition, and evaporation.
(a) Air.
(b) Water.
(c) Wind.
(d) Fire.

6. According to Chapter 1, ________, in 1747, attributed the cause of a "great revolution in physics" to Newton's "Principia."
(a) Descartes.
(b) Alexis-Claude Clairaut.
(c) Malebranche.
(d) Maupertuis.

7. What was the name of the philosopher who had a passion for humanity, a desire to "do good," and a penchant for reform, according to Chapter 1?
(a) Newton.
(b) Descartes.
(c) Condorcet.
(d) Maupertuis.

8. ________, working with the knowledge of latent heat, realized that a big difference in heat could be obtained with a small difference in temperature, if one compared water and ice.
(a) Roebuck.
(b) Newton.
(c) Fordyce.
(d) Black.

9. What area of study in the Middle Ages had been the domain of those truths that could be found through the use of reason alone without the revelation of the Bible?
(a) Physiology.
(b) Psychology.
(c) Natural theology.
(d) Mied mathematics.

10. Chapter 1 states that the "geometric spirit" noted by ________ ensured that the same progress would occur in our knowledge about nature.
(a) Fontenelle.
(b) Locke.
(c) Newton.
(d) Boyle.

11. In a letter of September 21, 1781, who wrote to his mentor Jean d'Alembert that he feared mathematics had reached its limit?
(a) Sylvestre-Francois Lacroix.
(b) Diderot.
(c) Joseph-Louis Lagrange.
(d) Bernard Fontenelle.

12. ________ in Italy and ________ in Holland did experiments in which they measured the impact of a falling ball by dropping in onto clay.
(a) Newton / Aristotle.
(b) Giovanni Poleni / 'sGravesande.
(c) 'sGravesande / Descartes.
(d) Voltaire / d'Alembert.

13. ________'s emphasis on the repulsive or expansive property of air, led naturally to an emphasis on the expansive properties of the even more subtle fluids of heat and electricity.
(a) Musschenbroek.
(b) Boerhaave.
(c) Aristotle.
(d) Hales.

14. The discipline of physics had originally been created by ________, and it had nothing to do with experiment or quantitative measure nor was it limited to the inorganic world.
(a) Boerhaave.
(b) Aristotle.
(c) Newton.
(d) Plato.

15. Chapter 1 states that in 1700, ________ first talked about an "almost complete revolution in geometry" that had begun with the analytic geometry of Descartes.
(a) Cartesians.
(b) Leibniz.
(c) D'Alembert.
(d) Bernard le Bovier de Fontenelle.

Short Answer Questions

1. Who came out in support of vis viva in 1722 and concluded that "what was before only a dispute of words now becomes a dispute about real things"?

2. What was the name of the philosopher who carried out the following experiments: kite, electric spider, and lightning bells to study electricity?

3. What was the name of the philosopher who was the leading scientific experimenter in seventeenth-century England, who had agreed that he had never seen any "inanimate production of nature, or of chance, whose contrivance was comparable to that of the meanest limb of the despicabilist animal"?

4. The names "biology" and "sociology" were names and fields that were created in what century, according to the narrator in Chapter 1?

5. In Chapter 2, what was the name of the shape of a chain suspended between two fixed points?

(see the answer keys)

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