Science and the Enlightenment Test | Mid-Book Test - Easy

Thomas L. Hankins
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This test consists of 15 multiple choice questions and 5 short answer questions.

Multiple Choice Questions

1. According to Chapter 2, for Newton, ________ consisted in "making experiments and observations and in drawing general Conclusion from them by Induction."
(a) Calculus.
(b) Reason.
(c) Analysis.
(d) Religion.

2. In a letter of September 21, 1781, who wrote to his mentor Jean d'Alembert that he feared mathematics had reached its limit?
(a) Diderot.
(b) Bernard Fontenelle.
(c) Sylvestre-Francois Lacroix.
(d) Joseph-Louis Lagrange.

3. ________ in Italy and ________ in Holland did experiments in which they measured the impact of a falling ball by dropping in onto clay.
(a) 'sGravesande / Descartes.
(b) Giovanni Poleni / 'sGravesande.
(c) Voltaire / d'Alembert.
(d) Newton / Aristotle.

4. Who coined the expression "Scientific Revolution," according to the narrator in Chapter 1?
(a) Malebranche.
(b) Newton.
(c) Jean Lerond d'Alembert.
(d) Descartes.

5. In Chapter 2, what was the name of the path of a body that is dragged over a resisting horizontal surface by a cord of which one end moves along a straight line found?
(a) Brachistachrone.
(b) Isoperimeters.
(c) Cycloid.
(d) Tractrix.

6. What was the name of the philosopher who had a passion for humanity, a desire to "do good," and a penchant for reform, according to Chapter 1?
(a) Descartes.
(b) Newton.
(c) Condorcet.
(d) Maupertuis.

7. Who came out in support of vis viva in 1722 and concluded that "what was before only a dispute of words now becomes a dispute about real things"?
(a) 'sGravesande.
(b) Galileo Galilei.
(c) Voltaire.
(d) Musschenbroek.

8. What was the name of the philosopher who could enthusiastically claim that "the works of Nature everywhere sufficiently evidence a Diety"?
(a) Kant.
(b) D' Alembert.
(c) John Locke.
(d) Aristotle.

9. In Chapter 3, who proposed a single static electrical "atmosphere" that attracted and repelled by pressure rather than by the impact of an electrical wind?
(a) Desagulier.
(b) Newton.
(c) Franklin.
(d) Musschenbroek.

10. The conversion of 'sGravesande confused the ideological debate because he was one of the leading supporters of ________ philosophy on the Continent.
(a) Platoian.
(b) Aristotlian.
(c) Voltairian.
(d) Newtonian.

11. The "Philosophical Letters" was a product of Voltaire's visit to ________ according to Chapter 2.
(a) Germany.
(b) England.
(c) Africa.
(d) America.

12. What was the name of the path by which an object slides from one point to another that is not on the same vertical line in the shortest possible time?
(a) Tractrix.
(b) Catenary.
(c) Involute.
(d) Brachistachrone.

13. ________, "curator of experiments" at the Royal Society, began research on the luminosity of phosphorus in 1705, under instruction from members of the society.
(a) William Gilbert.
(b) John Cuthbertson.
(c) Abbe Nollet.
(d) Francis Hauksbee.

14. According to the narrator in Chapter 2, the only machine employed by rational mechanics was ________.
(a) The mind.
(b) The soul.
(c) The body.
(d) The car.

15. In 1688, Fontenelle wrote a treatise on the nature of the eclogue or ________.
(a) Pastoral poem.
(b) Limerick.
(c) Sonnet.
(d) Haiku.

Short Answer Questions

1. What was the name of the curve traced by the end of a string as it is unwrapped from another curve found in Chapter 2?

2. Of all the subtle fluids conceived of during the Enlightenment, the ________ was the one that caused the most excitement and attracted the most researchers.

3. The ________, who had been leaders in experimental physics during the seventeenth century, continued to hold a prominent place until their order was suppressed in 1773.

4. ________, working with the knowledge of latent heat, realized that a big difference in heat could be obtained with a small difference in temperature, if one compared water and ice.

5. The narrator reveals that mathematicians pursued ________, in which the physical object was reduced to a few idealized properties that were capable of quantification.

(see the answer keys)

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