Science and the Enlightenment Test | Mid-Book Test - Easy

Thomas L. Hankins
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This test consists of 15 multiple choice questions and 5 short answer questions.

Multiple Choice Questions

1. Newton had not made it clear whether the forces acting between the planets and between the parts of matter acted at a distance or through some intervening medium called a(n) ________.
(a) Witness.
(b) Ether.
(c) Osmosis.
(d) Fluid.

2. The "Philosophical Letters" was a product of Voltaire's visit to ________ according to Chapter 2.
(a) Germany.
(b) England.
(c) Africa.
(d) America.

3. What was the name of the philosopher who was the leading scientific experimenter in seventeenth-century England, who had agreed that he had never seen any "inanimate production of nature, or of chance, whose contrivance was comparable to that of the meanest limb of the despicabilist animal"?
(a) Galileo.
(b) Robert Boyle.
(c) Swift.
(d) Locke.

4. What area of science included astronomy, optics, statics, hydraulics, gnomonics, geography, horology, navigation, surveying, and fortification?
(a) Meteorology.
(b) Mixed mathematics.
(c) Geology.
(d) Botany.

5. Contemporary chemistry recognized only one element in the gaseous state, and that was the element _______.
(a) Water.
(b) Fire.
(c) Air.
(d) Earth.

6. According to Chapter 3, ________ was the most volatile and least substantial of all the elements; therefore, it was the chief agent of change, as witnessed by its role in combustion, fermentation, decomposition, and evaporation.
(a) Fire.
(b) Air.
(c) Wind.
(d) Water.

7. The concept of subtle fluids made its appearance around ________ when demonstration experiments in physics were rapidly gaining in popularity, according to the narrator in Chapter 3.
(a) 1770.
(b) 1740.
(c) 1853.
(d) 1800.

8. Which German metaphysician, when asked in 1785 if he believed he lived in an enlightened age, answered, "No, we are living in an age of enlightenment."
(a) Chatelet.
(b) Maupertuis.
(c) Diderot.
(d) Immanuel Kant.

9. What was the name of the problem of finding the shape of a surface of maximum area for a perimeter of given length as found in Chapter 2?
(a) Isoperimeters.
(b) Cycloid.
(c) Involute.
(d) Brachistachrone.

10. Who claimed a community of atheists could live a completely moral existence, according to Chapter 1 of the book "Science and the Enlightenment"?
(a) L'Hopital.
(b) Pierre Bayle.
(c) Kant.
(d) Varignon.

11. According to the narrator in Chapter 1, what was the key to a correct method whose model was mathematics?
(a) Nuture.
(b) Reason.
(c) Nature.
(d) Geometry.

12. What term did Toland invent for the belief that God and nature were one and the same, according to the narrator in Chapter 1?
(a) Mechanism.
(b) Pantheism.
(c) Deism.
(d) Academism.

13. Who was France's greatest hero of the Enlightenment partly because he was from England, the source of free thought and liberty and partly because he had solved the riddle of the planets, showing that their motions obeyed the same laws as motions on earth?
(a) Swift.
(b) Boyle.
(c) Newton.
(d) Fontenelle.

14. The conversion of 'sGravesande confused the ideological debate because he was one of the leading supporters of ________ philosophy on the Continent.
(a) Newtonian.
(b) Platoian.
(c) Voltairian.
(d) Aristotlian.

15. In Chapter 3, who proposed a single static electrical "atmosphere" that attracted and repelled by pressure rather than by the impact of an electrical wind?
(a) Musschenbroek.
(b) Franklin.
(c) Newton.
(d) Desagulier.

Short Answer Questions

1. In 1688, Fontenelle wrote a treatise on the nature of the eclogue or ________.

2. What was the name of the path by which an object slides from one point to another that is not on the same vertical line in the shortest possible time?

3. What was the name of the curve traced by the end of a string as it is unwrapped from another curve found in Chapter 2?

4. Throughout the Enlightenment, reason was usually extolled in the same breath with ________, the other key word of the Enlightenment.

5. In a letter of September 21, 1781, who wrote to his mentor Jean d'Alembert that he feared mathematics had reached its limit?

(see the answer keys)

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