Science and the Enlightenment Test | Mid-Book Test - Easy

Thomas L. Hankins
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This test consists of 15 multiple choice questions and 5 short answer questions.

Multiple Choice Questions

1. Who made the first extensive series of investigations of electricity in his book "De Magnete," according to Chapter 3?
(a) William Gilbert.
(b) Robert Symmer.
(c) John Cuthbertson.
(d) Abbe Nollet.

2. Chapter 2 states that ________ had been created to deal with the problem of motion and that the new mathematical techniques discovered in the eighteenth century were all responses to the challenges of mechanics.
(a) Statistics.
(b) Calculus.
(c) Geometry.
(d) Arithmetic.

3. ________, working with the knowledge of latent heat, realized that a big difference in heat could be obtained with a small difference in temperature, if one compared water and ice.
(a) Roebuck.
(b) Newton.
(c) Black.
(d) Fordyce.

4. The conversion of 'sGravesande confused the ideological debate because he was one of the leading supporters of ________ philosophy on the Continent.
(a) Newtonian.
(b) Aristotlian.
(c) Platoian.
(d) Voltairian.

5. The concept of a ________ was a necessary step in the process of quantification, according to the narrator in Chapter 3.
(a) Capacitor fluid.
(b) Acid fluid.
(c) Subtle fluid.
(d) Transmission fluid.

6. Some of the "cabinet de physique" became very large, the most famous being the collection of the ________ in Haarlem.
(a) Ford Foundation.
(b) Rockefeller Foundation.
(c) Teyler Foundation.
(d) Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.

7. Vis viva was thought by its creator ________ to be the dynamic quantity that was conserved in the universe, according to the narrator in Chapter 2.
(a) 'sGravesande.
(b) Euler.
(c) Descartes.
(d) Leibniz.

8. What was the name of the curve traced by the end of a string as it is unwrapped from another curve found in Chapter 2?
(a) Involute.
(b) Cycloid.
(c) Tractrix.
(d) Isoperimeters.

9. In the hands of ________, history led not to an understanding of God's will but rather to an understanding of human nature.
(a) Boyle.
(b) David Hume.
(c) Kant.
(d) D'Alembert.

10. The "Philosophical Letters" was a product of Voltaire's visit to ________ according to Chapter 2.
(a) America.
(b) England.
(c) Africa.
(d) Germany.

11. Who coined the expression "Scientific Revolution," according to the narrator in Chapter 1?
(a) Malebranche.
(b) Jean Lerond d'Alembert.
(c) Newton.
(d) Descartes.

12. All of the following philosophers at the University of Leiden followed Newton's lead in organizing experiments except for whom?
(a) Musschenbroek.
(b) Locke.
(c) Boerhaave.
(d) 'sGravesande.

13. In Chapter 2, what was the name of the path of a body that is dragged over a resisting horizontal surface by a cord of which one end moves along a straight line found?
(a) Brachistachrone.
(b) Tractrix.
(c) Cycloid.
(d) Isoperimeters.

14. Throughout the Enlightenment, reason was usually extolled in the same breath with ________, the other key word of the Enlightenment.
(a) Religion.
(b) Science.
(c) Nature.
(d) Nuture.

15. In 1819, who gave a clue to the source of this pessimism when he wrote that "the power of our analysis is practically exhausted"?
(a) Joseph-Louis Lagrange.
(b) Diderot.
(c) Sylvestre-Francois Lacroix.
(d) Isaac Barrow.

Short Answer Questions

1. Chapter 2 reveals that Leibniz wrote the "second difference" in calculus as ________.

2. From ________'s law of falling bodies, it was known that the heights would be proportional to the squares of the velocities at impact.

3. Who was France's greatest hero of the Enlightenment partly because he was from England, the source of free thought and liberty and partly because he had solved the riddle of the planets, showing that their motions obeyed the same laws as motions on earth?

4. Who carried rational mechanics to the highest point of generality and abstraction that it was to reach during the Enlightenment?

5. Leibniz, in his differential calculus, broke up the curve into many little straight lines, creating a ________, in Chapter 2 of "Science and the Enlightenment."

(see the answer keys)

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