Science and the Enlightenment Test | Mid-Book Test - Easy

Thomas L. Hankins
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This test consists of 15 multiple choice questions and 5 short answer questions.

Multiple Choice Questions

1. Who stated in the introduction to their book that, "There are no figures in this book. The methods that I demonstrate here require neither constructions, nor geometrical or mechanical reasoning, but only algebraic operations, subject to a regular and uniform development"?
(a) Lagrange.
(b) Euler.
(c) Hermann.
(d) Basel.

2. Who stated in 1665 that "Analysis...seems to belong no more to Mathematics than to Physics, Ethics or any other Science"?
(a) Condillac.
(b) Euclid.
(c) Isaac Barrow.
(d) Aristotle.

3. In a letter of September 21, 1781, who wrote to his mentor Jean d'Alembert that he feared mathematics had reached its limit?
(a) Joseph-Louis Lagrange.
(b) Sylvestre-Francois Lacroix.
(c) Diderot.
(d) Bernard Fontenelle.

4. In Chapter 2, what was the name of the shape of a chain suspended between two fixed points?
(a) Tractrix.
(b) Involute.
(c) Catenary.
(d) Isoperimeters.

5. Who argued in the "Preliminary discourse" to the "Encyclopedie" that mathematics was basic to all of physics, according to the narrator in Chapter 3?
(a) Jean d'Alembert.
(b) Bacon.
(c) Boerhaave.
(d) Locke.

6. Chapter 2 states that ________ had been created to deal with the problem of motion and that the new mathematical techniques discovered in the eighteenth century were all responses to the challenges of mechanics.
(a) Arithmetic.
(b) Statistics.
(c) Calculus.
(d) Geometry.

7. In 1769, ________, a student of Joseph Black's at Glasgow, measured the repulsion between charges with an apparatus that balanced the electrical repulsion against gravitational attraction.
(a) Luigi Galvani.
(b) John Robison.
(c) Volta.
(d) Charles Augustin Coulomb.

8. In 1729, ________, a dedicated amateur experimenter and occasional contributor to the "Philosophical Transactions" of the Royal Society, discovered that electricity could be communicated over rather long distances by contact.
(a) Stephen Gray.
(b) Francis Hauksbee.
(c) 'sGravesande.
(d) Newton.

9. According to the narrator in Chapter 2, the only machine employed by rational mechanics was ________.
(a) The body.
(b) The car.
(c) The mind.
(d) The soul.

10. Who claimed a community of atheists could live a completely moral existence, according to Chapter 1 of the book "Science and the Enlightenment"?
(a) L'Hopital.
(b) Varignon.
(c) Pierre Bayle.
(d) Kant.

11. The narrator reveals that vis viva was a measure of ________ to conserve his creation while "action" was a measure of his efficiency.
(a) God's desire.
(b) Man's desire.
(c) God's demeanor.
(d) Man's passion.

12. The narrator explains in Chapter 3 that ________ and ________ were the best examples of subtle fluids.
(a) Electricity / heat.
(b) Water / air.
(c) Electricity / water.
(d) Heat / air.

13. In Chapter 3, ________ and ________ were both led to the problem of specific heat by the discovery that a great deal of heat was required to melt ice, even though its temperature remained at the melting point.
(a) Wilcke / Robison.
(b) Black / Wilcke.
(c) Black / Coulomb.
(d) Galvani / Volta.

14. Symmer's socks suggested the presence of ________ electrical fluids, according to the narrator in Chapter 3.
(a) 8.
(b) 6.
(c) 2.
(d) 4.

15. ________, working with the knowledge of latent heat, realized that a big difference in heat could be obtained with a small difference in temperature, if one compared water and ice.
(a) Roebuck.
(b) Black.
(c) Fordyce.
(d) Newton.

Short Answer Questions

1. Newton had not made it clear whether the forces acting between the planets and between the parts of matter acted at a distance or through some intervening medium called a(n) ________.

2. What was the name of the philosopher who was the leading scientific experimenter in seventeenth-century England, who had agreed that he had never seen any "inanimate production of nature, or of chance, whose contrivance was comparable to that of the meanest limb of the despicabilist animal"?

3. Some of the "cabinet de physique" became very large, the most famous being the collection of the ________ in Haarlem.

4. Who came out in support of vis viva in 1722 and concluded that "what was before only a dispute of words now becomes a dispute about real things"?

5. The concept of a ________ was a necessary step in the process of quantification, according to the narrator in Chapter 3.

(see the answer keys)

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