Science and the Enlightenment Test | Mid-Book Test - Easy

Thomas L. Hankins
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This test consists of 15 multiple choice questions and 5 short answer questions.

Multiple Choice Questions

1. All of the following English philosophers had shown convincingly that knowledge about the physical world could not be obtained from first principles without resort to experiment except for whom?
(a) Bacon.
(b) Boyle.
(c) Newton.
(d) Locke.

2. Who made the first extensive series of investigations of electricity in his book "De Magnete," according to Chapter 3?
(a) William Gilbert.
(b) Robert Symmer.
(c) John Cuthbertson.
(d) Abbe Nollet.

3. What was the name of the philosopher who was the leading scientific experimenter in seventeenth-century England, who had agreed that he had never seen any "inanimate production of nature, or of chance, whose contrivance was comparable to that of the meanest limb of the despicabilist animal"?
(a) Locke.
(b) Galileo.
(c) Robert Boyle.
(d) Swift.

4. What was the name of the priest of the Congregation of the Oratory, who was also a philosopher, mathematician, and member of the French Academy of Sciences?
(a) Nicolas Malebranche.
(b) Chatelet.
(c) Descartes.
(d) Newton.

5. The narrator explains in Chapter 3 that ________ and ________ were the best examples of subtle fluids.
(a) Heat / air.
(b) Electricity / heat.
(c) Electricity / water.
(d) Water / air.

6. Who argued in the "Preliminary discourse" to the "Encyclopedie" that mathematics was basic to all of physics, according to the narrator in Chapter 3?
(a) Locke.
(b) Boerhaave.
(c) Jean d'Alembert.
(d) Bacon.

7. In Chapter 3, what was the name of the experimental tradition began in Western Europe during the Renaissance?
(a) Natural magic.
(b) Physics.
(c) Practical magic.
(d) Black magic.

8. What area of study in the Middle Ages had been the domain of those truths that could be found through the use of reason alone without the revelation of the Bible?
(a) Physiology.
(b) Psychology.
(c) Mied mathematics.
(d) Natural theology.

9. According to Chapter 1, ________, in 1747, attributed the cause of a "great revolution in physics" to Newton's "Principia."
(a) Maupertuis.
(b) Malebranche.
(c) Descartes.
(d) Alexis-Claude Clairaut.

10. What was the name of the revolution that was a cultural event associated with Galileo Galilei, Johannes Kepler, Rene Descartes, and Isaac Newton?
(a) Scientific Revolution.
(b) French Revolution.
(c) American Revolution.
(d) Enlightenment Revolution.

11. In Chapter 3, who proposed a single static electrical "atmosphere" that attracted and repelled by pressure rather than by the impact of an electrical wind?
(a) Newton.
(b) Franklin.
(c) Musschenbroek.
(d) Desagulier.

12. The names "biology" and "sociology" were names and fields that were created in what century, according to the narrator in Chapter 1?
(a) 19th.
(b) 15th.
(c) 17th.
(d) 18th.

13. In a letter of September 21, 1781, who wrote to his mentor Jean d'Alembert that he feared mathematics had reached its limit?
(a) Bernard Fontenelle.
(b) Joseph-Louis Lagrange.
(c) Sylvestre-Francois Lacroix.
(d) Diderot.

14. Contemporary chemistry recognized only one element in the gaseous state, and that was the element _______.
(a) Air.
(b) Water.
(c) Fire.
(d) Earth.

15. What term did Toland invent for the belief that God and nature were one and the same, according to the narrator in Chapter 1?
(a) Mechanism.
(b) Pantheism.
(c) Deism.
(d) Academism.

Short Answer Questions

1. What was the name of the problem of finding the shape of a surface of maximum area for a perimeter of given length as found in Chapter 2?

2. According to the narrator in Chapter 3, who became a famous doctor and chemist and initiated the Dutch program in his oration of 1715 entitled "De comparando certo in physicis"?

3. In 1688, Fontenelle wrote a treatise on the nature of the eclogue or ________.

4. Chapter 1 states that the "geometric spirit" noted by ________ ensured that the same progress would occur in our knowledge about nature.

5. What was the name of the path by which an object slides from one point to another that is not on the same vertical line in the shortest possible time?

(see the answer keys)

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