|Name: _________________________||Period: ___________________|
This test consists of 15 multiple choice questions and 5 short answer questions.
Multiple Choice Questions
1. Who carried rational mechanics to the highest point of generality and abstraction that it was to reach during the Enlightenment?
2. Who became the leading literary figure of the Enlightenment and in 1734 published "Philosophical Letters"?
3. What was the name of the philosopher who was the leading scientific experimenter in seventeenth-century England, who had agreed that he had never seen any "inanimate production of nature, or of chance, whose contrivance was comparable to that of the meanest limb of the despicabilist animal"?
(a) Robert Boyle.
4. According to Chapter 2, for Newton, ________ consisted in "making experiments and observations and in drawing general Conclusion from them by Induction."
5. According to Chapter 1, who made Newton into a supreme rationalist whose laws of motion were a priori deductions of pure thought?
(a) Marquis de l'Hopital.
6. Who stated in the introduction to their book that, "There are no figures in this book. The methods that I demonstrate here require neither constructions, nor geometrical or mechanical reasoning, but only algebraic operations, subject to a regular and uniform development"?
7. Chapter 1 states that in 1700, ________ first talked about an "almost complete revolution in geometry" that had begun with the analytic geometry of Descartes.
(c) Bernard le Bovier de Fontenelle.
8. Vis viva was thought by its creator ________ to be the dynamic quantity that was conserved in the universe, according to the narrator in Chapter 2.
9. What area of science included astronomy, optics, statics, hydraulics, gnomonics, geography, horology, navigation, surveying, and fortification?
(a) Mixed mathematics.
10. What was the name of the problem of finding the shape of a surface of maximum area for a perimeter of given length as found in Chapter 2?
11. Who made the first extensive series of investigations of electricity in his book "De Magnete," according to Chapter 3?
(a) William Gilbert.
(b) Robert Symmer.
(c) John Cuthbertson.
(d) Abbe Nollet.
12. What was the name of the philosopher who could enthusiastically claim that "the works of Nature everywhere sufficiently evidence a Diety"?
(b) D' Alembert.
(d) John Locke.
13. According to the narrator in Chapter 3, Abbe Nollet, who became the most prominent ________ during the Enlightenment, explained the two electricities as opposing currents of the electrical fluid emerging in jets from the electrified body.
(a) French electrician.
(b) American plumber.
(c) Polish priest.
(d) German psychologist.
14. What term did Toland invent for the belief that God and nature were one and the same, according to the narrator in Chapter 1?
15. The eighteenth century was called by the French the ________ because of its emphasis on reason as a path to knowledge.
(a) Century of life.
(b) Century of reason.
(c) Century of light.
(d) Century of science.
Short Answer Questions
1. The concept of subtle fluids made its appearance around ________ when demonstration experiments in physics were rapidly gaining in popularity, according to the narrator in Chapter 3.
2. Chapter 2 reveals that Leibniz wrote the "second difference" in calculus as ________.
3. In Chapter 1, who claimed that his "principle of least action" proved the existence of God?
4. Who came out in support of vis viva in 1722 and concluded that "what was before only a dispute of words now becomes a dispute about real things"?
5. What was the name of the path by which an object slides from one point to another that is not on the same vertical line in the shortest possible time?
This section contains 584 words
(approx. 2 pages at 300 words per page)