Science and the Enlightenment Test | Mid-Book Test - Easy

Thomas L. Hankins
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This test consists of 15 multiple choice questions and 5 short answer questions.

Multiple Choice Questions

1. Which German metaphysician, when asked in 1785 if he believed he lived in an enlightened age, answered, "No, we are living in an age of enlightenment."
(a) Diderot.
(b) Immanuel Kant.
(c) Maupertuis.
(d) Chatelet.

2. According to Chapter 1, ________, in 1747, attributed the cause of a "great revolution in physics" to Newton's "Principia."
(a) Maupertuis.
(b) Descartes.
(c) Malebranche.
(d) Alexis-Claude Clairaut.

3. In Chapter 2, who was the greatest analyst of the Enlightenment and created mathematical theories to predict the buckling of columns and beams?
(a) Leibniz.
(b) Bernoulli.
(c) Leonhard Euler.
(d) Newton.

4. According to Chapter 1, who made Newton into a supreme rationalist whose laws of motion were a priori deductions of pure thought?
(a) Roberts.
(b) Fontenelle.
(c) Maupertuis.
(d) Marquis de l'Hopital.

5. Who came out in support of vis viva in 1722 and concluded that "what was before only a dispute of words now becomes a dispute about real things"?
(a) Galileo Galilei.
(b) 'sGravesande.
(c) Voltaire.
(d) Musschenbroek.

6. The eighteenth century was called by the French the ________ because of its emphasis on reason as a path to knowledge.
(a) Century of science.
(b) Century of light.
(c) Century of reason.
(d) Century of life.

7. In Chapter 3, who noticed that when he pulled off his silk socks in the evening, "they frequently made a crackling or snapping noise" and emitted "sparks of fire"?
(a) Robert Symmer.
(b) Martinus van Marum.
(c) William Gilbert.
(d) John Cuthbertson.

8. Chapter 1 states that in 1700, ________ first talked about an "almost complete revolution in geometry" that had begun with the analytic geometry of Descartes.
(a) D'Alembert.
(b) Bernard le Bovier de Fontenelle.
(c) Cartesians.
(d) Leibniz.

9. The narrator reveals that mathematicians pursued ________, in which the physical object was reduced to a few idealized properties that were capable of quantification.
(a) Rational mechanics.
(b) Analysis.
(c) Psychology.
(d) Synthesis.

10. In Chapter 3, what was the name of the experimental tradition began in Western Europe during the Renaissance?
(a) Practical magic.
(b) Natural magic.
(c) Black magic.
(d) Physics.

11. What was the name of the philosopher who was the leading scientific experimenter in seventeenth-century England, who had agreed that he had never seen any "inanimate production of nature, or of chance, whose contrivance was comparable to that of the meanest limb of the despicabilist animal"?
(a) Locke.
(b) Swift.
(c) Galileo.
(d) Robert Boyle.

12. In 1688, Fontenelle wrote a treatise on the nature of the eclogue or ________.
(a) Pastoral poem.
(b) Haiku.
(c) Limerick.
(d) Sonnet.

13. What was the name of the philosopher who could enthusiastically claim that "the works of Nature everywhere sufficiently evidence a Diety"?
(a) D' Alembert.
(b) John Locke.
(c) Aristotle.
(d) Kant.

14. Who made the first extensive series of investigations of electricity in his book "De Magnete," according to Chapter 3?
(a) William Gilbert.
(b) Robert Symmer.
(c) John Cuthbertson.
(d) Abbe Nollet.

15. According to Chapter 2, for Newton, ________ consisted in "making experiments and observations and in drawing general Conclusion from them by Induction."
(a) Religion.
(b) Analysis.
(c) Calculus.
(d) Reason.

Short Answer Questions

1. What was the name of the philosopher who carried out the following experiments: kite, electric spider, and lightning bells to study electricity?

2. Some of the "cabinet de physique" became very large, the most famous being the collection of the ________ in Haarlem.

3. According to the beginning of Chapter 1, in 1759 the French mathematician ________ described a revolution that he saw taking place in natural philosophy.

4. Who coined the expression "Scientific Revolution," according to the narrator in Chapter 1?

5. Who stated in 1665 that "Analysis...seems to belong no more to Mathematics than to Physics, Ethics or any other Science"?

(see the answer keys)

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