Science and the Enlightenment Quiz | Eight Week Quiz D

Thomas L. Hankins
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This quiz consists of 5 multiple choice and 5 short answer questions through Chapter 3, Experimental Physics.

Multiple Choice Questions

1. What was the name of the path by which an object slides from one point to another that is not on the same vertical line in the shortest possible time?
(a) Tractrix.
(b) Involute.
(c) Brachistachrone.
(d) Catenary.

2. Chapter 2 states that ________ had been created to deal with the problem of motion and that the new mathematical techniques discovered in the eighteenth century were all responses to the challenges of mechanics.
(a) Calculus.
(b) Arithmetic.
(c) Geometry.
(d) Statistics.

3. Who had written a preface to the second edition of the "Principia," supposedly with Newton's blessing, that described gravity as a force acting at a distance without any intervening medium?
(a) Henry Oldenburg.
(b) Roger Cortes.
(c) James Butler.
(d) Robert Boyle.

4. In a letter of September 21, 1781, who wrote to his mentor Jean d'Alembert that he feared mathematics had reached its limit?
(a) Sylvestre-Francois Lacroix.
(b) Bernard Fontenelle.
(c) Diderot.
(d) Joseph-Louis Lagrange.

5. All of the following English philosophers had shown convincingly that knowledge about the physical world could not be obtained from first principles without resort to experiment except for whom?
(a) Locke.
(b) Bacon.
(c) Boyle.
(d) Newton.

Short Answer Questions

1. What was the name of the philosopher who could enthusiastically claim that "the works of Nature everywhere sufficiently evidence a Diety"?

2. According to the narrator in Chapter 1, who was one of the originators of the mechanical philosophy who believed there were no forces or powers in matter?

3. According to the beginning of Chapter 1, in 1759 the French mathematician ________ described a revolution that he saw taking place in natural philosophy.

4. In 1819, who gave a clue to the source of this pessimism when he wrote that "the power of our analysis is practically exhausted"?

5. According to the narrator in Chapter 3, Abbe Nollet, who became the most prominent ________ during the Enlightenment, explained the two electricities as opposing currents of the electrical fluid emerging in jets from the electrified body.

(see the answer key)

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