Science and the Enlightenment Quiz | Four Week Quiz A

Thomas L. Hankins
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This quiz consists of 5 multiple choice and 5 short answer questions through Chapter 2, Mathematics and the Exact Sciences.

Multiple Choice Questions

1. According to Chapter 1, who made Newton into a supreme rationalist whose laws of motion were a priori deductions of pure thought?
(a) Roberts.
(b) Maupertuis.
(c) Fontenelle.
(d) Marquis de l'Hopital.

2. In a letter of September 21, 1781, who wrote to his mentor Jean d'Alembert that he feared mathematics had reached its limit?
(a) Joseph-Louis Lagrange.
(b) Sylvestre-Francois Lacroix.
(c) Diderot.
(d) Bernard Fontenelle.

3. In the hands of ________, history led not to an understanding of God's will but rather to an understanding of human nature.
(a) David Hume.
(b) Boyle.
(c) D'Alembert.
(d) Kant.

4. What category of science, at the beginning of the Enlightenment, was "the science that teaches us the reasons and causes of all the effects that Nature produces," including both living and nonliving phenomena?
(a) Zoology.
(b) Chemistry.
(c) Physics.
(d) Biology.

5. Who carried rational mechanics to the highest point of generality and abstraction that it was to reach during the Enlightenment?
(a) Hermann.
(b) Diderot.
(c) Daniel.
(d) Lagrange.

Short Answer Questions

1. The "Philosophical Letters" was a product of Voltaire's visit to ________ according to Chapter 2.

2. In Chapter 2, who was the greatest analyst of the Enlightenment and created mathematical theories to predict the buckling of columns and beams?

3. Leibniz, in his differential calculus, broke up the curve into many little straight lines, creating a ________, in Chapter 2 of "Science and the Enlightenment."

4. Who became the ablest and most productive mathematician of the eighteenth century, according to the narrator in Chapter 2?

5. According to Chapter 1, the noble Houyhnhnm in Jonathan Swift's ________ "thought Nature and Reason were sufficient guides for a reasonable animal, as we pretended to be, in showing us what we ought to do, and what to avoid."

(see the answer key)

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