Science and the Enlightenment Quiz | Two Week Quiz A

Thomas L. Hankins
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This quiz consists of 5 multiple choice and 5 short answer questions through Chapter 4, Chemistry.

Multiple Choice Questions

1. In 1757, thirty years after Hales described his experiments with ________, Joseph Black discovered the phenomenon of ________.
(a) Fixed air / latent heat.
(b) Volatile liquid / fixed heat.
(c) Latent heat / Fixed heat.
(d) Vaporization / Dissertation.

2. According to the narrator in Chapter 3, who became a famous doctor and chemist and initiated the Dutch program in his oration of 1715 entitled "De comparando certo in physicis"?
(a) Mariotte.
(b) Newton.
(c) Musschenbroek.
(d) Boerhaave.

3. What term did Toland invent for the belief that God and nature were one and the same, according to the narrator in Chapter 1?
(a) Deism.
(b) Academism.
(c) Mechanism.
(d) Pantheism.

4. Chapter 1 states that in 1700, ________ first talked about an "almost complete revolution in geometry" that had begun with the analytic geometry of Descartes.
(a) D'Alembert.
(b) Bernard le Bovier de Fontenelle.
(c) Cartesians.
(d) Leibniz.

5. Newton had not made it clear whether the forces acting between the planets and between the parts of matter acted at a distance or through some intervening medium called a(n) ________.
(a) Osmosis.
(b) Witness.
(c) Ether.
(d) Fluid.

Short Answer Questions

1. Who was the most important German chemist, whose papers in the "Memoires" of the Berlin Academy, during the 1740s and 1750s, earned the admiration of the French chemists?

2. Who was the first person to identify a new air different from common atmospheric air,, in Chapter 4?

3. Joseph Black studied ________, which had only recently been used as a medicine, according to Chapter 4.

4. Who became the ablest and most productive mathematician of the eighteenth century, according to the narrator in Chapter 2?

5. Who was the extraordinary philosopher whose life and career exemplified many aspects of the Enlightenment, although he was not especially prominent as a natural philosopher nor was he the main protagonist in the vis viva controversy?

(see the answer key)

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