Russia and 1848
• After the failed revolutions in Europe in 1848, Tsar Nicholas I Romanov moved away from reform toward a clampdown on dissenters, radicals, and censorship of literature.
• The Tsar's repressive techniques resulted in the arrest of the Petrachevsky Circle, and Fyodor Dostoevsky was exiled to Siberia as a result.
• The radicalism of Russians only hardened under repression, and in isolation from the west, opposition became inbred and Slavophilic.
The Hedgehog and the Fox
• Berlin uses the adage about the fox and the hedgehog to describe Tolstoy as a materialist who saw the value of being an idealist.
• The grand designs the idealist sees were at work in Tolstoy's works, but the authorial eye could only see them, never the characters.
• Tolstoy steered a middle way in which he focused on the moral possibilities of individual life.
Herzen and Bakunin on Individual Liberty
• Berlin describes Herzen...
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