Russian Thinkers Chapter Abstracts for Teachers

This set of Lesson Plans consists of approximately 129 pages of tests, essay questions, lessons, and other teaching materials.
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Russia and 1848

• After the failed revolutions in Europe in 1848, Tsar Nicholas I Romanov moved away from reform toward a clampdown on dissenters, radicals, and censorship of literature.
• The Tsar's repressive techniques resulted in the arrest of the Petrachevsky Circle, and Fyodor Dostoevsky was exiled to Siberia as a result.
• The radicalism of Russians only hardened under repression, and in isolation from the west, opposition became inbred and Slavophilic.

The Hedgehog and the Fox

• Berlin uses the adage about the fox and the hedgehog to describe Tolstoy as a materialist who saw the value of being an idealist.
• The grand designs the idealist sees were at work in Tolstoy's works, but the authorial eye could only see them, never the characters.
• Tolstoy steered a middle way in which he focused on the moral possibilities of individual life.

Herzen and Bakunin on Individual Liberty

• Berlin describes Herzen and Bakunin as...

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