|Name: _________________________||Period: ___________________|
This test consists of 5 short answer questions, 10 short essay questions, and 1 (of 3) essay topics.
Short Answer Questions
1. Sontag lists which of the following as images that the artist "takes"?
2. Sontag lists which of the following as images that the artist "makes"?
3. The conflicts in the Balkans in the 1990s stood out to many onlookers for which of the following reasons?
4. The Brady war pictures were taken of which of the following wars?
5. Fenton received directions from the War Office to do which of the following?
Short Essay Questions
1. Explain the purpose of photography collections such as Ernst Friedrich's "Krieg dem Kriege!" (War Against War!), and discuss how these works attempt to achieve this end.
2. Sontag suggests that the same photograph might elicit "opposing responses." Discussing a specific example, explain how this might be possible.
3. Discuss the significance of the Magnum Photo Agency, founded in Paris in 1947. What was the group initially founded to do? How did they influence the development of photojournalism?
4. Sontag asserted that "cameras have always kept company with death." What did she mean by this assertion?
5. Discuss the purpose of Virginia Woolf's "Three Guineas" as explained by Sontag, and explain why Sontag opens her book with this reference.
6. Sontag discussed the captions to Goya's "Los Desastres de la Guerra" (The Disasters of War). Explain the significance of these messages to the viewer. How do these captions affect the impact of the image?
7. Sontag distinguished between "image makers" and "image takers". What is the difference between these two groups of artists? How are they perceived differently?
8. Explain how being a "spectator of calamities" occurring in far-off places is a "quintessentially modern experience."
9. Discuss the reaction of the British public to the image of trenches of unburied bodies taken 10 days after a British defeat during the Boer War. What does this reaction say about the sensibility of the public?
10. Using the example of genocides and AIDS in Africa, Sontag argued that images of suffering in far-off places carry a double meaning. What is this double meaning?
Write an essay for ONE of the following topics:
Essay Topic 1
Media coverage of the Vietnam War produced a mass outcry against war, while the media coverage of 9/11 produced more divergent effects on individuals. What do you think accounts for this difference? Is it perhaps the difference between a far-off conflict and an attack at "home"? Is it perhaps something in the nature of the wars themselves? Is it the difference in media coverage? Or is it something altogether different? Defend your position with evidence and support.
Essay Topic 2
Sontag also traced the relationship between the presence of the press and the practice of war-making. In one example, she discussed the execution of a suspected Vietcong soldier by Brigadier General Loan, suggesting that the execution was a performance for the photographer present on the scene. Does media coverage affect the waging of war? Are journalists neutral and uninvolved? Discuss the relationship between journalists' presence and soldiers' behavior. Provide specific examples.
Essay Topic 3
Sontag commented extensively on the ways in which war photography and atrocity centered journalism has evolved from the inception of photojournalism. Discuss your views on the evolution of war photography. Do you agree with Sontag's assertions? Why or why not? Draw on specific historical and contemporary examples to support your analysis.
This section contains 1,097 words
(approx. 4 pages at 300 words per page)