|Name: _________________________||Period: ___________________|
This test consists of 5 short answer questions, 10 short essay questions, and 1 (of 3) essay topics.
Short Answer Questions
1. Which was the first war to be covered by television cameras?
2. Sontag argues that a photograph by which of these photographers triggered mass outcry against the Vietnam War?
3. Sontag argues that Goya's "The Disasters of War" was a turning point in the depiction of suffering. What does she cite as her reason?
4. Fenton received directions from the War Office to do which of the following?
5. Sontag discusses one year in European history in which the photograph was able to truly capture the nature of human atrocities. Which year was it?
Short Essay Questions
1. Explain the connection Sontag made between religious narratives and iconography and the Western understanding of images of suffering. Discuss at least one example from the text.
2. Explain the purpose of photography collections such as Ernst Friedrich's "Krieg dem Kriege!" (War Against War!), and discuss how these works attempt to achieve this end.
3. How did war journalism change during the Spanish Civil War (1936-39)? How did the coverage of this war more closely resemble modern media coverage of conflicts?
4. Sontag suggests that the same photograph might elicit "opposing responses." Discussing a specific example, explain how this might be possible.
5. According to Sontag, how are photographs of victims a form of rhetoric? What is their purpose or message? How do they function to convey this message?
6. Sontag agrees with Woolf's assertion that the educated class has failed to understand war. How is this a failure of empathy or imagination?
7. According to Sontag, how does a photograph in the news media differ from a written account? How does the audience change?
8. Using the example of genocides and AIDS in Africa, Sontag argued that images of suffering in far-off places carry a double meaning. What is this double meaning?
9. According to Sontag, do people prefer artistic renderings or straight-forward representations of atrocities? Why?
10. Explain the significance of Jacques Callot's 1633 series of etchings titled "Les Miseres et les Malheurs de la Guerra" (The Miseries and Misfortunes of War). Why did Sontag discuss this work?
Write an essay for ONE of the following topics:
Essay Topic 1
In her argument about representation, Sontag also addressed the significance and ethics of censorship. It would seem that standards of good taste or propriety are fairly often at odds with the constitutionally protected freedom of the press. Delve into the issue of censorship. Are there instances in which censorship is the ethical choice? If so, when? If not, why not? Need public interest and censorship be at odds? Or, is censorship designed with public interest in mind? Defend your position with ample support and specific examples.
Essay Topic 2
Why might a group of people be more sensitive to images of its members in pain? For instance, why might Americans be more sensitive to images of American citizens in pain? Why, do you think, people are less sensitive to the suffering of "others" outside their own social, cultural, or national grouping?
Essay Topic 3
Select a work of war protest art which Sontag discussed in detail in this book. Formulate your own argument regarding the effectiveness of the piece. Was Sontag correct in her assertions? Why or why not? What does the work attempt to accomplish? What does it succeed or fail to do? Provide specific support and evidence for your assertions.
This section contains 1,078 words
(approx. 4 pages at 300 words per page)