|Name: _________________________||Period: ___________________|
This test consists of 5 short answer questions, 10 short essay questions, and 1 (of 3) essay topics.
Short Answer Questions
1. At the end of World War II, a group of journalists formed Magnum Photo Agency. Which of the following photographers was not among them?
2. Sontag claims that images of suffering in Africa send a double message. Which of the following best represents that message?
3. Which technological advancement changed the way war was photographed after World War I?
4. Sontag argues that Woolf's view, like many other "antiwar polemicists" is:
5. Sontag argues that the most extensive kind of censorship is which of the following?
Short Essay Questions
1. According to Sontag, how does a photograph in the news media differ from a written account? How does the audience change?
2. Discuss the significance of Eddie Adams' photograph of the execution of a suspected Vietcong agent. What did Sontag say was particularly striking about this image and the circumstances of its creation?
3. According to Sontag, how are photographs of victims a form of rhetoric? What is their purpose or message? How do they function to convey this message?
4. What did Sontag mean when she claimed that the memory of war is mostly local? What does this mean for international news firms?
5. According to Sontag, how are standards for journalism determined in an era of tele-controlled warfare?
6. According to Sontag, do people prefer artistic renderings or straight-forward representations of atrocities? Why?
7. Explain the significance of Jacques Callot's 1633 series of etchings titled "Les Miseres et les Malheurs de la Guerra" (The Miseries and Misfortunes of War). Why did Sontag discuss this work?
8. Sontag asserted that "cameras have always kept company with death." What did she mean by this assertion?
9. Sontag compared the photograph to a maxim or a proverb. Explain this comparison. What does it tell us about the nature or impact of photographs?
10. Sontag stated that the photographer's intentions do not determine the message of the photograph. Discuss the contributing factors which influence the reception of photographs in the media.
Write an essay for ONE of the following topics:
Essay Topic 1
Sontag also traced the relationship between the presence of the press and the practice of war-making. In one example, she discussed the execution of a suspected Vietcong soldier by Brigadier General Loan, suggesting that the execution was a performance for the photographer present on the scene. Does media coverage affect the waging of war? Are journalists neutral and uninvolved? Discuss the relationship between journalists' presence and soldiers' behavior. Provide specific examples.
Essay Topic 2
Throughout the book, Sontag discussed various photography exhibits centered on tragedies and atrocities. Some examples include the "Here is New York" exhibit following the attack on the World Trade Center and an exhibit on lynchings of African Americans in the South during the early 20th century. Sontag argued that, at times, museum exhibits are not the most appropriate venue for images of atrocity because they allow casual observers to pass by images without giving them due reverence. Do you agree with Sontag's argument regarding museum exhibits throughout the book? Why or why not? Be sure to provide evidence to support your discussion of this type of representation.
Essay Topic 3
Sontag suggested that specific memory of atrocities may be detrimental to peace efforts. Is this necessarily true? Is there a way in which memories and memorials might contribute to establishing and maintaining peace? If so, how? If not, why not?
This section contains 1,105 words
(approx. 4 pages at 300 words per page)