|Name: _________________________||Period: ___________________|
This test consists of 5 multiple choice questions, 5 short answer questions, and 10 short essay questions.
Multiple Choice Questions
1. Photography on the war front was first banned in an organized fashion during which of the following wars?
(a) The Spanish Civil War.
(b) World War II.
(c) World War I.
(d) The Boer War.
2. In discussing the difference gender makes in perceptions of war, Sontag agrees with which of the following authors?
(a) Virginia Woolf.
(b) Henry James.
(c) Tyler Hicks.
(d) Joyce Carol Oates.
3. To whom did the "Here Is New York" exhibit donate the proceeds?
(a) A fund benefitting the arts and encouraging photography of New York.
(b) A fund benefitting the fire departments that acted to save the victims.
(c) A fund benefitting the spouses of those who died.
(d) A fund benefitting children who lost parents in the attack.
4. Sontag lists many effects of photographs depicting war victims. Which of the following was not one of the effects she lists?
(a) "They inspire."
(b) "They create the illusion of consensus."
(c) "They simplify."
(d) "They reiterate."
5. Images of the Gulf War were filtered to portray the "techno war." The public was exposed to only those images that portrayed which of the following sentiments?
(a) American military mercy.
(b) Wondrous technological advancements.
(c) American military superiority over the enemy.
(d) Savagery of conventional warfare, compared to American techno war.
Short Answer Questions
1. Which was the first war to be covered by television cameras?
2. Sontag discusses a famous series of photographs taken by Tyler Hicks, titled "A Nation Challenged." What does this series depict?
3. Sontag suggests that the camera always "kept company with _________".
4. The conflicts in the Balkans in the 1990s stood out to many onlookers for which of the following reasons?
5. According to Sontag, "to photograph is to frame, and to frame is to _______".
Short Essay Questions
1. Sontag stated that the photographer's intentions do not determine the message of the photograph. Discuss the contributing factors which influence the reception of photographs in the media.
2. Discuss the significance of the Magnum Photo Agency, founded in Paris in 1947. What was the group initially founded to do? How did they influence the development of photojournalism?
3. Using the example of genocides and AIDS in Africa, Sontag argued that images of suffering in far-off places carry a double meaning. What is this double meaning?
4. How did war journalism change during the Spanish Civil War (1936-39)? How did the coverage of this war more closely resemble modern media coverage of conflicts?
5. Explain the connection Sontag made between religious narratives and iconography and the Western understanding of images of suffering. Discuss at least one example from the text.
6. Sontag distinguished between "image makers" and "image takers". What is the difference between these two groups of artists? How are they perceived differently?
7. Discuss the significance of "Here is New York," the exhibit of photographs taken on September 11th during the collapse of the World Trade Center.
8. According to Sontag, how are photographs of victims a form of rhetoric? What is their purpose or message? How do they function to convey this message?
9. Discuss the significance of Eddie Adams' photograph of the execution of a suspected Vietcong agent. What did Sontag say was particularly striking about this image and the circumstances of its creation?
10. According to Sontag, how are standards for journalism determined in an era of tele-controlled warfare?
This section contains 1,093 words
(approx. 4 pages at 300 words per page)