Plutarch's Lives, Volume 2 Test | Final Test - Hard

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This test consists of 5 short answer questions, 10 short essay questions, and 1 (of 3) essay topics.

Short Answer Questions

1. According to Plutarch, what lead to the death of Aratus' father?

2. According to Plutarch, who prevented Cyrus from assassinating Artaxerxes at his inaugural ceremonies as king?

3. In the comparison of Tiberius and Caius Gracchus (henceforth identified here as "The Roman Brothers") with Agis and Cleomenes ("The Spartans"), how does Plutarch refer to Tiberius and Caius as a unit?

4. What does Plutarch identify as the difference in the characters between "The Roman Brothers" and "The Spartans"?

5. What does Plutarch claim Demosthenes did with his suicide?

Short Essay Questions

1. How did Antony inspire a revolt against the assassins of Caesar, according to Plutarch?

2. Why does Plutarch report that Artaxerxes had his son, Darius, executed?

3. How did Plutarch show the differences in the motivations for speaking between Demosthenes and Cicero?

4. How did Plutarch compare the military achievements of Brutus and Dion?

5. What is a primary difference that can be inferred between the ancient Spartan civilization and the ancient Roman Empire from Plutarch's comparison between the Gracchi and the Spartans?

6. What does Plutarch claim was the result of Opimius undoing the land reforms that Caius enacted?

7. Why does Plutarch claim that Philip had Atarus poisoned?

8. How does Plutarch show the differences in the personalities between Demosthenes and Cicero through their rhetorical style?

9. How does Plutarch compare the deaths of Demetrius and Antony?

10. What difference does Plutarch recognize in the raising of the Gracchi Brothers (Tiberius and Caius) and The Spartans (Agis and Cleomenes)?

Essay Topics

Write an essay for ONE of the following topics:

Essay Topic 1

Phocion was a stern and respected general, but preferred peace to war even if his stand caused harsh political consequences. Detail two cases in which Phocion opposed popular causes to go to war in the Athenian Assembly. Identify the enemy and their leader, the reasons the Athenian Assembly wanted to make war, reasons Phocion warned against the war and his alternative recommendation, what the Assembly decided and the outcome for Athens.

Essay Topic 2

Plutarch's biography of Sertorius established a pattern of examining the life of a leader whose live and experiences were intertwined with other lives that were covered by Plutarch. Sertorius directly confronted Pompey in Spain and both were affected by the Roman tyrant Sylla. How were both Sertorius and Pompey affected by Sylla, and how did the different relationships with Sylla influence the confrontation they had with each other?

Essay Topic 3

Aratus gained tremendous political acclaim by driving the tyrant Nicocles from his palace. Detail the steps that Aratus took to return to Sicyon and get in the position to remove Nicocles from power. How did he build upon that reputation to unite the cities of Greece into a defensive league.

(see the answer keys)

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