Plutarch's Lives, Volume 2 Test | Final Test - Medium

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This test consists of 5 multiple choice questions, 5 short answer questions, and 10 short essay questions.

Multiple Choice Questions

1. In the comparison of Tiberius and Caius Gracchus (henceforth identified here as "The Roman Brothers") with Agis and Cleomenes ("The Spartans"), how does Plutarch refer to Tiberius and Caius as a unit?
(a) Sons of Gracchus.
(b) The Gracchi.
(c) The Romans.
(d) Tiberius and Caius.

2. What does Plutarch consider to be the difference in the military achievements between Dion and Brutus?
(a) Brutus was a better general, but Dion faced more worthy opponents.
(b) Don was a better tactician, but Brutus was more courageous.
(c) Dion favored closed confrontations, but Brutus preferred fighting in open fields.
(d) Dion was the better general, but Brutus faced a more worthy opponent.

3. What does Plutarch claim that Brutus' decision to betray Caesar prove?
(a) That he harbored resentment for his abandoning his mother after their affair.
(b) That he wanted the opportunity to rule Rome.
(c) That he was ungrateful for the grace that Caesar extended to him after the civil war with Pompey.
(d) That he was driven by principle and not emotion.

4. According to Plutarch, what lead to the death of Aratus' father?
(a) He was killed by a jealous magistrate wanting to take his power.
(b) He was killed after being exposed as leader of a conspiracy to overthrow a tyranny.
(c) He was chosen to as a magistrate over Sicyon as it tried to relieve itself from several tyrannies.
(d) He died in battle for Sicyon.

5. Why did Plutarch claim Artaxerxes' mother favored Cyrus as king when Darius died?
(a) Because Artaxerxes travelled on campaigns with his father, while Cyrus stayed and managed the home for his mother.
(b) Because she had given birth to Cyrus after Darius had become king.
(c) Because Artaxerxes' mother became pregnant with him while Cyrus was married to another woman.
(d) Because Cyrus was peaceful and Artaxerxes was a warrior.

Short Answer Questions

1. How did Plutarch explain the tyrrant, Nicocles, rose to power?

2. Why did Antigonus' son, Philip, kill Aratus, according to Plutarch?

3. Who does Plutarch identify as the father of Aratus?

4. What did Plutarch report Darius did to prevent his ascension to Artaxerxes' throne?

5. What honor does Plutarch report this earned for Demetrius and Antigonus from the Athenians?

Short Essay Questions

1. How did Antony inspire a revolt against the assassins of Caesar, according to Plutarch?

2. What did Plutarch identify as the marks of Cicero's oratory style?

3. What is a primary difference that can be inferred between the ancient Spartan civilization and the ancient Roman Empire from Plutarch's comparison between the Gracchi and the Spartans?

4. What steps did Plutarch describe that gave Tiberius the ability to pass his land reform laws?

5. According to Plutarch, why did Atarus leave Sicyon to grow up and get educated in Argos?

6. Why does Plutarch report that Artaxerxes had his son, Darius, executed?

7. What does Plutarch claim was the result of Opimius undoing the land reforms that Caius enacted?

8. What does Plutarch claim Atarus did to free Sicyon from the tyrant Nicocles?

9. How did Plutarch compare the military achievements of Brutus and Dion?

10. What difference does Plutarch recognize in the raising of the Gracchi Brothers (Tiberius and Caius) and The Spartans (Agis and Cleomenes)?

(see the answer keys)

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