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This test consists of 15 multiple choice questions and 5 short answer questions.
Multiple Choice Questions
1. According to Plutarch, what was the difference in political support between "The Roman Brothers" and "The Spartans"?
(a) "The Roman Brothers" kept opposition in check with strong support from the plebes, but "The Spartans" won political challenges through forceful personalities.
(b) "The Roman Brothers" were opposed by influential men of their day, but "The Spartans" were supported by history and the authority of one of the most important political leaders of Sparta.
(c) "The Roman Brothers" had strong support from leaders in the senate, but "The Spartans" got their support from military men.
(d) "The Roman Brothers" had their support from military men, but "The Spartans" were supported by the general public.
2. What does Plutarch report that Antony did after his first reaction the Assassination of Caesar?
(a) Joined Octavius and Lepidus in a triumvirate.
(b) Began a civil war to punish Brutus and Cassius.
(c) Organized a tribunal to judge the members of the conspiracy.
(d) He delivered a speech that turned the Roman population against Brutus and Cassius.
3. What tyrannical Syracusan King does Plutarch report Dion served as he became wealthy?
(c) Dionysius I.
(d) Dionysius II.
4. Where does Plutarch claim that Demosthenes was when he committed suicide to avoid capture by the Macedonians?
(a) In the Athenian Assembly.
(b) A temple in Calauria.
(c) In his home in Athens.
(d) On his way to the public baths.
5. What does Plutarch consider to be the difference in the military achievements between Dion and Brutus?
(a) Dion was the better general, but Brutus faced a more worthy opponent.
(b) Dion favored closed confrontations, but Brutus preferred fighting in open fields.
(c) Don was a better tactician, but Brutus was more courageous.
(d) Brutus was a better general, but Dion faced more worthy opponents.
6. What affect does Plutarch claim Aratus' education and his father's death have on Aratus?
(a) He cultivated a burning hatred of tyranny.
(b) He became suspicious and scheming.
(c) He chose to throw himself into his studies and ignore the problems of Sicyon.
(d) He became vengeful and rebellious.
7. What did Plutarch report Darius did to prevent his ascension to Artaxerxes' throne?
(a) He fled for Rome.
(b) He married a Spartan woman.
(c) He made himself a eunuch.
(d) He was discovered in a conspiracy to kill Artaxerxes and was executed.
8. How did Plutarch claim Artaxerxes avoided a war with the Spartans?
(a) He navigated his troops around the Spartans until they became exhausted and depleted.
(b) He joined with Alexander who then routed the Spartans.
(c) He bribed the Greeks to declare war with the Spartans.
(d) He offered the Spartans half his kingdom.
9. What did Plutarch claim to be the differences in motivation between Demosthenes and Cicero?
(a) Demosthenes was motivated by personal gain, but Cicero refused to take any gifts.
(b) Demosthenes was motivated by inspiring Greeks to their past glory, but Cicero was driven by the desire for glory.
(c) Demosthenes was humble and generous, but Cicero was impulsive and greedy.
(d) Demosthenes sought glory and honor, but Cicero was motivated by personal gain.
10. What did Plutarch report to be the differences between Rome and Sparta at the time "The Roman Brothers" and "The Spartans" had their influence?
(a) "The Roman Brothers" lived at the time that Rome had risen to its greatest repute, but "The Spartans" lived when Sparta was sinking and debauched.
(b) "The Roman Brothers" lived in a time of rebellion against Rome by its extended provinces, but "The Spartans" were part of a time of peace and industry.
(c) "The Roman Brothers" became part of a movement to unite the provinces of Rome, but "The Spartans" were fighting to free Sparta from Macedonian domination.
(d) "The Roman Brothers" lived as Rome was transitioning from a Republic to an Empire, but "The Spartans" lived as Sparta was coming to the end of extended captivity to Macedon.
11. What is the first difference that Plutarch found between Demetrius and Antony?
(a) Demetrius' father proved his power as a great battle general, but Antony's father was not a warrior.
(b) Demetrius was born into a humble family, but Antony was born into wealth.
(c) Demetrius was a willing mercenary, but Antony fought only for the glory of Rome.
(d) Demetrius lived a restrained life, but Antony was a victim of his vices.
12. For what does Plutarch claim Artaxerxes II was known?
(a) He was known for constructing ana alliance of Greeks and Macedonians.
(b) He was known for his biting sarcastic rhetorical style.
(c) He was known as the Mindful.
(d) He was known for having one leg shorter than the other.
13. Who did Plutarch identify as being responsible for opposing and turning back the legal and land reforms that were won by Caius as tribune?
(c) Caius Laelius.
14. Why did Plutarch claim Artaxerxes' mother favored Cyrus as king when Darius died?
(a) Because Artaxerxes' mother became pregnant with him while Cyrus was married to another woman.
(b) Because she had given birth to Cyrus after Darius had become king.
(c) Because Cyrus was peaceful and Artaxerxes was a warrior.
(d) Because Artaxerxes travelled on campaigns with his father, while Cyrus stayed and managed the home for his mother.
15. What did Plutarch identify as the primary difference between "The Roman Brothers" and "The Spartans"?
(a) "The Roman Brothers" tried to revert the Roman culture to its old ways, but "The Spartans" only tried moderate changes in the legal system.
(b) "The Roman Brothers" were wealthy landowners, but "The Spartans" gained their wealth through military exploits.
(c) "The Roman Brothers" improved their virtue through generous education but "The Spartans" kept their virtue in a social environment that had corrupted others.
(d) "The Roman Brothers" were great warriors, but "The Spartans" were thinkers and politicians.
Short Answer Questions
1. What does Plutarch report led to Antony's suicide at the threat of being defeated by Octavian?
2. What is the reason Plutarch gives for Aratus deciding to make alliance with Philip of Macedon?
3. Who did Plutarch identify as the Senator that Brutus opposed, but joined in a civil war against Caesar?
4. Plutarch's tone in the profile of Aratus changes from his other reports. Why is this?
5. According to Plutarch, what was Artaxerxes' name before he became king?
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