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This test consists of 15 multiple choice questions and 5 short answer questions.
Multiple Choice Questions
1. Who did wealthy land owners influence from the Senate to oppose Tiberius' efforts at land reform, according to Plutarch?
(a) Marcus Octavius, who was considered to be a friend of Tiberius.
(b) Caius Mancinus, who was a consul of bad reputation.
(c) Marcus Brutus, who opposed Caesars attempts to spread the wealth from captured cities.
(d) Octavius Caesar, who was son of Caesar.
2. What affect does Plutarch claim Aratus' education and his father's death have on Aratus?
(a) He became vengeful and rebellious.
(b) He became suspicious and scheming.
(c) He cultivated a burning hatred of tyranny.
(d) He chose to throw himself into his studies and ignore the problems of Sicyon.
3. What did Plutarch report Darius did to prevent his ascension to Artaxerxes' throne?
(a) He married a Spartan woman.
(b) He fled for Rome.
(c) He made himself a eunuch.
(d) He was discovered in a conspiracy to kill Artaxerxes and was executed.
4. Why does Plutarch consider Demetrius' death more dishonorable than Antony's?
(a) Because Demetrius died fleeing from his own army.
(b) Because Demetrius died in captivity after a failed military adventure.
(c) Because Demetrius died after rebelling against his country.
(d) Because Demetrius died from alcoholism.
5. What does Plutarch consider to be the difference between the reasons that Demosthenes and Cicero fled from the authorities?
(a) The bribery accusation from which Demosthenes fled was less honorable than Cicero's flight for opposing Caesar's son's rule.
(b) The call to war that brought Athenians to despise Demosthenes was more admirable than Cicero's flight because he made enemies of powerful leaders.
(c) Demosthenes fled because his rhetoric made him the enemies of the powerful, but Cicero left for the humiliation of insulting his superiors.
(d) Demosthenes flight for speaking truth to power was more noble that Cicero's flight out of fear because he had insulted a powerful general.
6. Why did Plutarch claim Artaxerxes' mother favored Cyrus as king when Darius died?
(a) Because Artaxerxes' mother became pregnant with him while Cyrus was married to another woman.
(b) Because Artaxerxes travelled on campaigns with his father, while Cyrus stayed and managed the home for his mother.
(c) Because she had given birth to Cyrus after Darius had become king.
(d) Because Cyrus was peaceful and Artaxerxes was a warrior.
7. Why does Plutarch claim that Cicero's leading the execution of conspirators to overthrow Rome was controversial?
(a) Because executions of failed conspirators was rare.
(b) Because the conspiracy involved Rome's most important generals.
(c) Because Romans abhorred violence.
(d) Because they were done without a trial.
8. Why did Antigonus' son, Philip, kill Aratus, according to Plutarch?
(a) He saw Aratus as a threat to his power.
(b) He had an affair with Aratus' wife while Aratus was fighting for him in battle.
(c) He became resentful of Aratus.
(d) He wanted to rule over Aratus' Greek alliance.
9. Who did Plutarch report to be the first Roman official to try to take up the issue that confronted Tiberius after his election as tribune?
(d) Caius Laelius.
10. After the death of Tiberius, what did Plutarch report to be the first office to which his brother, Caius was elected?
11. How did Plutarch characterize the differences in the changes in government "The Roman Brothers" and "The Spartans" sought to achieve?
(a) "The Roman Brothers" sought to restore Rome to its ancient Republic, whereas "The Spartans" sought internal improvements.
(b) "The Roman Brothers" aimed at settling cities, mending highways, and recovering public lands whereas "The Spartans" sought to restore their city to its ancient state.
(c) "The Roman Brothers" sought to place all power in a king, but "The Spartans" sought democracy.
(d) "The Roman Brothers" worked to restore the principles of the Republic, whereas "The Spartans" attempted to rid Sparta of its Greek democratic influence.
12. How was Cyrus' effort to overthrow Artaxerxes ended, according to Plutarch?
(a) He saw his challenge was harmful to Persia and committed suicide.
(b) He died in battle, supposedly by a spear thrown by Artaxerxes.
(c) Cyrus was killed in a conspiracy led by Artaxerxes' son Darius.
(d) Their mother demanded they stop.
13. What does Plutarch report led to Antony's suicide at the threat of being defeated by Octavian?
(a) He began a civil war with Ocavian and Lepidus in an effort to take total power of Rome.
(b) He sided with Lepidus in a civil war against Octavian.
(c) He was cornered with the co-conspirators of Caesar.
(d) His love affair with Queen Cleopatra of Egypt and his defense of Egypt against Octavian.
14. What did Plutarch claim to be the main issue facing Tiberius after he was elected tribune of the people?
(a) Land reform to restore property taken by the wealthy class while common landowners were fighting wars.
(b) Reforming the laws to even justice between the wealthy and the poor.
(c) Raising revenues through taxes to support Rome's many wars and Empire.
(d) Internal improvements to help Rome transport goods in and out of the cities of the empire.
15. How did Plutarch claim Artaxerxes avoided a war with the Spartans?
(a) He joined with Alexander who then routed the Spartans.
(b) He bribed the Greeks to declare war with the Spartans.
(c) He navigated his troops around the Spartans until they became exhausted and depleted.
(d) He offered the Spartans half his kingdom.
Short Answer Questions
1. Which one of the four being compared does Plutarch report had no great action worthy of a commander?
2. How was the Artaxerxes from Plutarch's "Lives" related to the first Artaxerxes to rule over Persia?
3. What tyrannical Syracusan King does Plutarch report Dion served as he became wealthy?
4. According to Plutarch, what was Artaxerxes' name before he became king?
5. What did Plutarch claim to be the differences in motivation between Demosthenes and Cicero?
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