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This test consists of 15 multiple choice questions and 5 short answer questions.
Multiple Choice Questions
1. What did Plutarch report to be Phocion's view of war whenever he was brought into debates with other Greek leaders?
(a) He believe a man could have no greater virtue than the desire to face bloody combat.
(b) His advice was always for peace and quietness.
(c) He always advocated drawing the enemy out into the open.
(d) He thrilled in the adventure of defeating an enemy.
2. According to Plutarch, what eventually led to Alexander and his mother, Olympia, separating from Philip to become his rivals?
(a) Philip's squandering the family wealth on horses and soldiers.
(b) Philip's many marriages.
(c) Philip's drunken display at the wedding of one of his nieces.
(d) Philip's humiliating defeat against the Spartans.
3. Who does Plutarch report commissioned Caesar to travel to Spain?
(a) Cassius, who desired to remove Caesar's influence from the Senate.
(b) Crassus, who was the richest man in Rome.
(c) Cato, who saw the value of expanding the empire.
(d) Pompey, who knew he needed Caesar's help.
4. What is the first similarity that Plutarch recognized between Sertorius and Eumenes?
(a) That they both came from laboring families but worked up to the Noble class.
(b) That they were both embraced by the political leaders of their countries.
(c) They were both banished to foreign lands, but came to be commanders of powerful forces.
(d) That they were both ferocious in battle.
5. What does Plutarch report to be the condition of Lacedaemonia when Agis and his partner began their reign?
(a) Lacedaemonia had risen to become the most powerful of Spartan cities.
(b) It was beaten down by wars with citizens who had lost hope of recovery.
(c) Lacedaemonia had become little more than a crossroad for commerce to more industrious cities.
(d) It was taken by avarice, a base spirit, luxury, effeminacy and had fallen from her former virtue and repute.
6. How did Plutarch compare Agesilaus and Pompey in their treatment of the men who supported their rise to power?
(a) Pompey remained loyal to Sylla even through the years Sylla had withdrawn his favor, but Agesilaus cast off Lysander with reproach after he rose to power on Lysander's misinterpretation of prophesy.
(b) Both Agesilaus and Pompey betrayed those who helped them through their careers.
(c) Agesilaus placed Lysander in an important province to honor his help whereas Pompey began making political connections so he could escape the influence of Sylla.
(d) Both Agesilaus and Pompey remained loyal to those who helped their careers.
7. How does Plutarch compare the climb to power between Agesilaus and Pompey?
(a) Pompey made his rise to greatness by confronting tyrants, but Agesilaus rose through allying with tryants.
(b) Pompey made his rise to power by murdering rivals, but Agesilaus rose by negotiating with rivals.
(c) Pompey made his rise to power with great military victories, but Agesilaus rose by negotiating peace.
(d) Pompey made his rise to greatness by the fairest and justest means, but Agesilaus rose through the deception of a misinterpreted prophesy.
8. Who does Plutarch report protected Cleomenes while he was in exile?
(a) Aratus of Sycion.
(b) King Ptolemy of Egypt.
(c) Artaxerxes of Persia.
(d) Phocion of Greece.
9. Who does Plutarch report ruled Rome in a Triumvirate while Cato served in the Senate?
(a) Sertorius, Brutus, and Cassius.
(b) Tiberius, Cicero, and Caius.
(c) Brutus, Octavius, and Antony.
(d) Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus.
10. What is a major difference between Sertorius and Eumenes that Plutarch recognized?
(a) That Sertorius was a learned captain, but Eumenes gained all of his knowledge from battle.
(b) That Sertorious had the support of the government, but Eumenes was in rebellion against the government.
(c) Sertorius' soldiers yielded to him freely, whereas Eumenes won a contested office by proving his superiority.
(d) Sertorius was well read, but Eumenes was illiterate.
11. Who joined Agis to turn back the laws that placed inherited land under control of a few wealthy families, according to Plutarch?
(a) Agesilaus, his half brother.
(b) Cleomenes, husband to Agiatis.
(c) Leonidas, son of Cleonymus.
(d) Lysander, the son of Libys and Madroclidas, the son of Ecphanes.
12. What are the character qualities Plutarch attributes to Cato from infancy?
(a) He showed great sensitivity to women and plebes.
(b) He had an influential rhetorical style that easily impressed audiences.
(c) He had an inflexible temper, resolute in purpose, and not easily provoked to anger.
(d) He had an uncommon ability to retain knowledge.
13. How did Plutarch report Caesar lost his position as Dictator?
(a) The Roman Senate voted to exile Caesar for his many wars.
(b) An insurrection by soldiers stationed in Germany.
(c) He was challenged to war by Ptolemy, which Caesar lost.
(d) He was assassinated by a conspiracy led by Cassius and Marcus Brutus.
14. What did Plutarch report of Phocion's temperament?
(a) "For assuredly there is difference enough among virtues of the same denomination as between the bravery of Alcibiades and that of Eapmindondas,..."
(b) "...That public bodies are most insulting and contumelious to a good man,...."
(c) "...that scarcely was he ever seen by any Athenian either laughing, or in tears."
(d) "He that remonstrates with them (public bodies) on their errors is presumed to be insulting over their misfortunes...."
15. How did Plutarch compare Sertorius and Eumenes in their views of war?
(a) Both Eumenes and Sertorius loved war.
(b) Both Eumenes and Sertorius esteemed peace and tranquility.
(c) Eumenes naturally loved war, but Sertorius esteemed peace and tranquility.
(d) Both Eumenes hated the death of war, but loved the thrill of strategy.
Short Answer Questions
1. Who were they, and what were the nationalities of Alexander's parents, according to Plutarch?
2. How old does Plutarch claim Alexander to have been when Philip left him in charge of Macedon while he went on an expedition against Byzantine?
3. What disaster does Plutarch report occurred on the day that Alexander was born that later added to the legend that he was a demi-god?
4. Why does Plutarch use the name, "Cato the Younger"?
5. What subject does Plutarch report Sertorius mastered as a youth?
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