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This test consists of 15 multiple choice questions and 5 short answer questions.
Multiple Choice Questions
1. What is a major difference between Sertorius and Eumenes that Plutarch recognized?
(a) That Sertorious had the support of the government, but Eumenes was in rebellion against the government.
(b) Sertorius was well read, but Eumenes was illiterate.
(c) That Sertorius was a learned captain, but Eumenes gained all of his knowledge from battle.
(d) Sertorius' soldiers yielded to him freely, whereas Eumenes won a contested office by proving his superiority.
2. What does Plutarch declare to be the condition of men in public life?
(a) "You see what power is--holding someone else's fear in your hand and showing it to them."
(b) "Nearly all men can stand adversity, but if you want to test a man's character, give him power."
(c) "...(They) are content to make themselves the slaves and followers of all the people's humors and caprices."
(d) "There is danger from all men. The only maxim of a free government ought to be to trust no man living with power to endangerment of the public liberty.
3. How does Plutarch claim the birth order of Agis and Agesilaus affected their lives?
(a) Agis, the older, was the favorite of the father, but Agesilaus was the favorite of their mother.
(b) Agis, the older, was educated to be king, and Agesilaus was given a common education.
(c) Agis, the older, was trained in military matters, but Agesilaus was trained in agricultural arts.
(d) Agis, the older, was given the inheritance of the king, but Agesilaus was given the authority over a province.
4. Who did Phocion advise Alexander to make war against rather than the Athenians, according to Plutarch?
(a) The Romans.
(b) The Spartans.
(c) The Persians.
(d) The Indians.
5. How did the master of Rome prior to Caesar's reign make himself an enemy to Caesar, according to Plutarch?
(a) Cato warned the Senate of the ambitions of Caesar.
(b) Cassius conspired with Brutus to remove Caesar from contention for power.
(c) Crassus allied himself with Pompey in the Roman Senate to force Caesar into a triumvirate.
(d) Sylla wanted Caesar to put his wife away because her father, Cinna, was the ruler of Rome priort to Sylla.
6. How does Plutarch compare the climb to power between Agesilaus and Pompey?
(a) Pompey made his rise to greatness by confronting tyrants, but Agesilaus rose through allying with tryants.
(b) Pompey made his rise to power by murdering rivals, but Agesilaus rose by negotiating with rivals.
(c) Pompey made his rise to power with great military victories, but Agesilaus rose by negotiating peace.
(d) Pompey made his rise to greatness by the fairest and justest means, but Agesilaus rose through the deception of a misinterpreted prophesy.
7. There were 12 Roman Caesar's. Which one is Plutarch chronicling?
(a) Tiberius Caesar.
(b) The first Caesar, Gaius Julius Caesar.
(c) Caesar Augustus.
(d) Octavious Caesar.
8. Who is the famous Roman General that Plutarch claims Sertorius outwitted during his exile in Spain?
9. What did Plutarch report to be the result of Cato's management of the exchequer?
(a) Cato filled it with treasure and made it appear the state might be rich without oppressing the people.
(b) Cato reduced taxes, but the senate was preoccupied with using the treasury for political favors.
(c) Cato was inundated with dealing with corruption and faced down opposition.
(d) Cato served only briefly because of the corrupt expectations of the political system.
10. According to Plutarch, who authored laws in Lacedaemonia that caused land that was once subject to inheritance within families to be taken into a few wealthy hands?
11. With whom did Pompey ally himself to overcome the reputation of his father, and who did Plutarch report they oppose in a civil conflict for power over Rome?
(a) Pompey allied himself with Caesar in an attempt to overthrow Sylla.
(b) Pompey allied himself with Metellus to overthrow Sertorius' rebellions in Spain.
(c) Pompey allied himself with Crassus to overthrow Caesar.
(d) Pompey allied himself with a very popular general named Sylla and they united their armies to oppose the tyrant, Carbo.
12. Who does Plutarch report to be the master of Rome before Caesar came to power?
13. How did Plutarch report that Cato prevented the Roman Senate from naming Caesar the Consul of Rome?
(a) He used his authority to adjust the calendar of the senate.
(b) He spent the entire day speaking and prevented the Senate from acting on the motion.
(c) He kept the motion to make Caesar consul in the committee.
(d) He used his authority to prevent senators from entering the senate.
14. What was a political hurdle that Plutarch claimed Pompey had to overcome?
(a) Pompey was not respected after he lost battles in Spain.
(b) He was a rival to Crassus.
(c) His father, Strabo, was so reviled by the Romans that they desecrated his body after his death.
(d) He was a rival to Caesar.
15. Why does Plutarch claim Philip believed that Alexander was a demi-god?
(a) Because Philip had a dream about serpents sleeping with Olympia that were signs of Jupiter's presence.
(b) Because there were three omens that prophets interpreted that Alexander's birth was exalted.
(c) Because Philip once saw a serpent sleeping with his wife and he was advised by a pagan priest that the serpent was Ammon (Zeus, Jupiter) who had taken that form.
(d) Because Alexander showed unnatural skill and intelligence from an early age.
Short Answer Questions
1. What does Plutarch report to be the condition of Lacedaemonia when Agis and his partner began their reign?
2. What was Caesar's first step, according to Plutarch, when he was informed of Sylla's power being in decline?
3. Who joined Agis to turn back the laws that placed inherited land under control of a few wealthy families, according to Plutarch?
4. Who invaded Spartan provinces while Cleomenes was making reforms in Spartan government, according to Plutarch?
5. Plutarch compares Sertorius to Philip, Antigonus, and Hannibal for his aggression, strategy, and what one other commonality?
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