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This test consists of 15 multiple choice questions and 5 short answer questions.
Multiple Choice Questions
1. How old was Alexander when Plutarch claims he took the Macedonian throne after Philip's death?
2. What is the first similarity that Plutarch recognized between Sertorius and Eumenes?
(a) That they were both embraced by the political leaders of their countries.
(b) They were both banished to foreign lands, but came to be commanders of powerful forces.
(c) That they both came from laboring families but worked up to the Noble class.
(d) That they were both ferocious in battle.
3. What does Plutarch report to be the condition of Lacedaemonia when Agis and his partner began their reign?
(a) It was taken by avarice, a base spirit, luxury, effeminacy and had fallen from her former virtue and repute.
(b) Lacedaemonia had risen to become the most powerful of Spartan cities.
(c) Lacedaemonia had become little more than a crossroad for commerce to more industrious cities.
(d) It was beaten down by wars with citizens who had lost hope of recovery.
4. What does Plutarch claim Aristotle provided that he considered, "...a perfect portable treasure of all military virtue and knowledge...."?
(a) Aristotle's maps of important sites in Persia.
(b) Aristotle's writings regarding the proper training and preparation of soldiers.
(c) Aristotle's personally corrected copy of Homer's Illiads.
(d) Aristotle's collection of military histories.
5. What battle against Macedon, according to Plutarch, that Phocion warned against taking that the Athenians lost under a different general?
(a) The battle of Delphi.
(b) The battle of Persia.
(c) The battle at Chaeronea.
(d) The battle for Euboea.
6. How did Plutarch compare Sertorius and Eumenes in their views of war?
(a) Both Eumenes and Sertorius esteemed peace and tranquility.
(b) Both Eumenes and Sertorius loved war.
(c) Eumenes naturally loved war, but Sertorius esteemed peace and tranquility.
(d) Both Eumenes hated the death of war, but loved the thrill of strategy.
7. According to Plutarch, who authored laws in Lacedaemonia that caused land that was once subject to inheritance within families to be taken into a few wealthy hands?
8. What did Plutarch report of Phocion's temperament?
(a) "For assuredly there is difference enough among virtues of the same denomination as between the bravery of Alcibiades and that of Eapmindondas,..."
(b) "...That public bodies are most insulting and contumelious to a good man,...."
(c) "...that scarcely was he ever seen by any Athenian either laughing, or in tears."
(d) "He that remonstrates with them (public bodies) on their errors is presumed to be insulting over their misfortunes...."
9. What is a major difference between Sertorius and Eumenes that Plutarch recognized?
(a) Sertorius' soldiers yielded to him freely, whereas Eumenes won a contested office by proving his superiority.
(b) That Sertorius was a learned captain, but Eumenes gained all of his knowledge from battle.
(c) That Sertorious had the support of the government, but Eumenes was in rebellion against the government.
(d) Sertorius was well read, but Eumenes was illiterate.
10. What was the most notable sign that Plutarch suggests that proves Caesar had begun to win popular support to challenge Sylla?
(a) When he took possession of a field owned by Sylla.
(b) When he allied himself with Sylla's enemies in the Senate.
(c) When he praised an enemy of Sylla's, named Marius, during the eulogy of Marius' wife.
(d) When he challenged Sylla's hold on power directly in the Senate.
11. With whom did Pompey ally himself to overcome the reputation of his father, and who did Plutarch report they oppose in a civil conflict for power over Rome?
(a) Pompey allied himself with a very popular general named Sylla and they united their armies to oppose the tyrant, Carbo.
(b) Pompey allied himself with Caesar in an attempt to overthrow Sylla.
(c) Pompey allied himself with Metellus to overthrow Sertorius' rebellions in Spain.
(d) Pompey allied himself with Crassus to overthrow Caesar.
12. How did the master of Rome prior to Caesar's reign make himself an enemy to Caesar, according to Plutarch?
(a) Crassus allied himself with Pompey in the Roman Senate to force Caesar into a triumvirate.
(b) Cato warned the Senate of the ambitions of Caesar.
(c) Cassius conspired with Brutus to remove Caesar from contention for power.
(d) Sylla wanted Caesar to put his wife away because her father, Cinna, was the ruler of Rome priort to Sylla.
13. What was Caesar's first step, according to Plutarch, when he was informed of Sylla's power being in decline?
(a) He began rallying support in the senate to have Sylla removed from power.
(b) He returned to his home realizing that Sylla no longer had the support to eliminate his enemies.
(c) He attended the school of a famous rhetorician named Apollonius.
(d) He joined with Crassus and Pompey to form a triumvirate to overpower Sylla.
14. After his return from Spain, with whom does Plutarch claim Caesar took power over Rome in the Triumvirate?
(a) Crassus and Pompey.
(b) Sylla and Nero.
(c) Antony and Octavius.
(d) Brutus and Cassius.
15. What did Plutarch claim was the final indication that Pompey had fallen out of Sylla's favor?
(a) Sylla dispatched Pompey to Spain to quell rebellions.
(b) Sylla did not include Pompey in his will.
(c) Sylla attempted to have Pompey imprisoned.
(d) Sylla defeated Pompey in battle as he was returning from conquests in Europe.
Short Answer Questions
1. What victory of Phocion over the Macedonians did Plutarch report as being that which earned the admiration of Philip, King of Macedon?
2. What does Plutarch report to be Phocion's retort when Athens began to celebrate the death of Philip of Macedon?
3. According to Plutarch, how did Caesar begin his rise to power over Rome?
4. Who invaded Spartan provinces while Cleomenes was making reforms in Spartan government, according to Plutarch?
5. What did Plutarch report to be the difference between how the island allies of Athens treated other arriving Athenian admirals compared to their reception of Phocion?
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