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This quiz consists of 5 multiple choice and 5 short answer questions through A Gem from Isaac Newton.

## Multiple Choice Questions

**1. Which of the following was NOT one of Gauss' discoveries?**
**(a)** That under Euclid's definition parallel lines can intersect. **(b)** That angles in a triangles can not add up to more than 180 degrees. **(c)** That there is no apparent contraction to the assumption that the sum of angles in a triangle can have fewer than 180 degrees. **(d)** "Non-euclidean" geometry.

**2. What did Dunham claim about Archimedes's determination of a number value for pi?**
**(a)** Archimedes's number was perfectly correct. **(b)** Archimedes's number could have been better if he had understood Euclid's work better, **(c)** Archimedes's number was not very accurate, considering the technology of his time. **(d)** Archimedes's number was very good, considering he did not have a way to calculate square roots.

**3. In Elements, how many postulates must be accepted as given?**
**(a)** Twelve, **(b)** Five. **(c)** Twenty-two. **(d)** Eighteen.

**4. What was the title of Cardano's book which contained the solution to the cubic?**
**(a)** Tarsisia. **(b)** Ars Magna. **(c)** La Magnifica. **(d)** Elements.

**5. What shape was NOT demonstrated in the Elements as having a relationship to other shapes?**
**(a)** Hexagon. **(b)** Triangle. **(c)** Pentagon. **(d)** Hyperbola.

## Short Answer Questions

**1.** Who else, besides Newton, independently discovered a calculus method?

**2.** Where does the center of mathematical thinking shift to after Italy?

**3.** Which word best describes Newton's childhood?

**4.** What did Newton's calculus involve?

**5.** Which of the following best describes Cardano's character?

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