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**Pythagorean Theorem** - Expresses the proportions of the sides of a right triangle, that the square of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the two perpendicular legs.

**Quadrature** - Determines the area of a closed polygon by constructing a square of the same area.

**Prime Number** - Can only be divided evenly by itself and 1.

**Binomial Theorem** - Allows for the expansion of algebraic equations with exponents.

**Harmonic Series** - The sum of the series diverges toward infinity

**π** - The ratio between the diameter and the circumference of a circle.

**Transfinite Cardinal** - A number used to describe types of infinite sets.

**Cubic Equation** - A function of the form ax³ + bx² + cx + d where a is not equal to zero.

**Continuum** - A term for all the numbers between two integers, such as between 0 and 1.

**Elements** - A book that developed...

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