Galileo Galilei - This character is a highly respected scientist, astronomer, and professor at the University of Padua.
Andrea Sarti - This character is about nine years old when the play begins. The play ends with this character crossing the Italian border.
Ludovico Marsili - This character becomes engaged, and breaks the engagement, during the play.
Virginia Galilei - This character is seen praying at the inquisition trial.
Federzoni - This character is a lens-grinder.
Christopher Clavius - This character is Rome's preeminent astronomer.
The Little Monk - This character abandons science after the heliocentric model is proved.
Cardinal Barberini - This character becomes the Pope.
Mrs. Sarti - This character is the main character's housekeeper.
Sagredo - This character is a friend of the main character and lives in Venice.
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