|Name: _________________________||Period: ___________________|
This test consists of 5 short answer questions, 10 short essay questions, and 1 (of 3) essay topics.
Short Answer Questions
1. What refers to the change in frequency of a wave for an observer moving relative to the source of the wave?
2. What is the first premise of "On the Origin of Species"?
3. In Chapter 15, the author writes that physicists learned that when an electron was elevated into a higher orbit, it moved from lower to higher orbit without what?
4. Who wrote in fourth century BC that "to consider the earth as the only populated world in infinite space is as absurd as to assert that in an entire field sown with millet only one grain will grow"?
5. When was René Descartes born?
Short Essay Questions
1. Why did Darwin delay the publication of "The Origin of the Species" according to the author in Chapter 14: "The Evolution of Atoms and Stars"?
2. What advancements led to the discovery of the composition of the stars, according to the author in Chapter 10: "Einstein's Sky"?
3. What discoveries does the author describe regarding spiral nebulae in Chapter 9: "Island Universes"?
4. How does the author describe theoretical physicists in Chapter 16: "Rumors of Perfection"?
5. How does the author describe the world of science in the twentieth century in Chapter 17: "The Axis of History"?
6. Who associated the red-shift of the galaxies with Einstein's relativity, according to the author in Chapter 12: "Sermons in Stones"?
7. How does the author compare telescopes and accelerators in Chapter 17: "The Axis of History"?
8. What discoveries did Charles Darwin make on his five-year expedition described in Chapter 13: "The Age of the Earth"?
9. What influences led William Herschel in his studies of nebulae, according to the author in Chapter 8: "Deep Space"?
10. How are nebulae defined in Chapter 8: "Deep Space"? What are the different classes of nebulae?
Write an essay for ONE of the following topics:
Essay Topic 1
Describe, analyze and discuss the fall of Rome, the Brethren of Purity, the Islamic followers of Ptolemy, and Ancius Boethius. When did the fall of Rome take place and how did it affect the sciences? What impact did the rise of Christianity have on astronomy and cosmology, according to the author? Why?
Essay Topic 2
Discuss the lives and theories of Eudoxus, Aristotle, and Claudius Ptolemy. How did they advance science? When did each of these individuals live and what relationships did they have with one another? What were their impacts on history?
Essay Topic 3
Analyze and discuss the theories of Isaac Newton, Rene Descartes, and Plato. How was Newton influenced by Descartes and Plato? What advancements did Newton make on the theories of the earlier astronomers and philosophers? Also discuss Newton's fascinations with religion, alchemy and magic. How did these interests conflict with his scientific interests?
This section contains 1,021 words
(approx. 4 pages at 300 words per page)