|Name: _________________________||Period: ___________________|
This test consists of 15 multiple choice questions and 5 short answer questions.
Multiple Choice Questions
1. A closed string is defined as what?
(a) A string that has ends.
(b) A string that closes off an area of space.
(c) A string joined up with itself in a closed loop.
(d) A string that connects two objects and no other.
2. Why do researchers want to find black holes?
(a) To explain gravitational forces that the mass of the universe cannot explain.
(b) To explain strage gravitational orbits of planets in bianary star systems.
(c) To prevent the orbits of earth and other possible earth-like worlds from entering them.
(d) To prevent space travelers from entering them.
3. Black holes can capture matter particles and what other type of particles?
4. An open string is defined as what?
(a) A string with no end.
(b) A string that connects two things.
(c) A string with an end.
(d) A string that connects nothing.
5. What is the purpose of an arrow of time?
(a) To give direction to time.
(b) To indicate how fast time moves.
(c) To indicate how much time has passed.
(d) To indicate how far time must move.
6. Why did the universe not collapse back on itself shortly after the big bang?
(a) There was too much acceleration.
(b) We don't know.
(c) Gravity interfered.
(d) Particles became real and less dense.
7. How many black holes are estimated per cubic light year of space?
8. Hawking argues that randomness must exist to a certain degree due to what?
(a) The lack of knowledge.
(b) The ability to run time backwards.
(c) The uncertainty principle.
(d) The theory of relativity.
9. Gamma ray detection might be able to be used to detect what?
(c) White dwarfs.
(d) Black holes.
10. Galileo wrote about Copernicus' theory in which language?
11. Who said, "Physics as we know it will be over in six months."
(a) Kurt Godel.
(b) Albert Einstein.
(c) Stephen Hawking.
(d) Max Born.
12. The manuscript of Galileo's second major book was smuggled to a publisher located where?
13. What was the name of Galileo's book that had to be smuggled to a publisher?
(a) Modern Physics.
(b) Two New Views.
(c) Two New Sciences.
(d) Modern Sciences.
14. A possible solution to combining general relativity and the uncertainty principle is what?
(b) Creating a new particle.
(c) Cancelation of infinities.
(d) Elimination of the cosmological constant.
15. What is the second law of thermodynamics?
(a) In any closed system, the ordering principles stay the same.
(b) In any closed system, disorder increases over time.
(c) In any closed system, disorder decreases over time.
(d) In any closed system, time is relative.
Short Answer Questions
1. What is the fate of black holes according to Hawking's model of the universe?
2. What type of matter might account for gravitational forces that cannot be explained by the mass of our universe?
3. What types of numbers can be used to run time backwards?
4. What is one of Hawking's three possibilities for the unification of physics theory?
5. "We see the universe the way it is because we exist," demonstrates what principle?
This section contains 550 words
(approx. 2 pages at 300 words per page)