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Oliver Cromwell

Between 1642 and 1651, England was engaged in a bloody civil war, with supporters of King Charles I (also called Royalists or Cavaliers) battling supporters of Parliament (also called Parliamentarians or Roundheads). At issue was Charles's religious intolerance toward Protestants. Oliver Cromwell (1599–1658), himself a Calvinist and member of Parliament, became a general and led the Parliamentarians to victory. After Charles I was tried and executed in 1649, the monarchy was abolished and England was declared a republic known as "the Commonwealth." Cromwell became Lord Protector in 1653, establishing religious tolerance and raising England's prestige in Europe, which had been seriously declining since the death of Queen Elizabeth I (1533–1603). Despite his Parliamentarian origins, as Lord Protector, Cromwell's relationship with Parliament was rocky. He dissolved Parliament in 1653 for being corrupt, then again in 1655 for being uncooperative. An excerpt of his speech dissolving the 1655 Parliament is...

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This section contains 2,287 words
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Buy The Renaissance Encyclopedia Article
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The Renaissance from Greenhaven. ©2001-2006 by Greenhaven Press, Inc., an imprint of The Gale Group. All rights reserved.
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