Rise and Spread of Islam 622-1500: Science, Technology, Health Research Article from World Eras

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Military Challenges. Islam arose during the seventh century, during a period when the Christian Byzantine Empire and the Zoroastrian Sasanid (Persian) Empire were battling for control of the region. As the Muslim empire expanded, they had to face formidable enemies and contend with various nomadic tribes. Later, Muslim territory came under attack from various Turkic and Mongol ethnic groups and Christian Crusaders from western Europe. The outcome of a battle was often decided by who had the strongest and best-trained horses or the latest in military technology. Many Arab military manuscripts describe early Muslims' development of military technology to counter the superior weaponry of the sophisticated and experienced Byzantine and Persian cavalries.

Edged Weapons. The sword was a cavalryman's most important weapon, and one form of metallurgy in which Muslim artisans excelled was the art of making swords, which were not...

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This section contains 1,410 words
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Buy the Rise and Spread of Islam 622-1500: Science, Technology, Health Encyclopedia Article
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